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Transcript of Music Education
Dr Rachel Hocking
Secondary School Music
Early Childhood Music
K-6 School Music
Impact of Music - school results
- Clear correlation between music and specific maths skills (Spelke, 2008).
- Higher average grades in all subjects (Wetter, Koerner, Schawninger, 2009).
- Gain of one year in Yr 5 NAPLAN reading scores after TSR programs (Caldwell, Vaughan, 2011).
- Gain of 6 months in Yr 5 NAPLAN science scores after TSR programs (Caldwell, Vaughan, 2011).
'Augmenting the Diminished'
- National Review of School Music Education (2005).
- Followed on from general concern re crisis in Australian music education, 'The Stevens Report' (2003), and the US 'Champions of Change' research (1999).
- Provided recommendations for government, schools, principals, teachers, universities, TAFEs, music organisations, community groups, and parents.
- 5936 individual submissions were made, and over 500 schools participated in the review.
"People can catch up on many life skills later on in life, but music is different. The opportunities for music education presented at school will not be repeated for most people after their school years." (#1136, parent of a music student, New South Wales)
K-6 Creative Arts Syllabus, page 25.
What does classroom music teaching look (sound) like?
- playing instruments and reading notation
- creating or composing music
- listening to music and watching live music performances
- combining music with movement and other art forms
- reflecting on and appreciating music
- learning about musical concepts
- using music technology
- using music for classroom management
- making musical instruments
- Rounds (canons)
- Folk and bush songs
- Marching songs
- Work songs
- Sea shanties
- Songs from musicals
- Spirituals and gospel music
- Christmas carols
- Pop songs
- Songs not in English
- Learning songs
- Repetitive songs
- Songs with actions
- Songs with sound effects
Ages 5 to 12
- playground repertoire - 'communities of practice' (Harwood, Marsh, 2013).
- participatory music (as opposed to presentational music)... all contributions are of equal importance.
- aural/oral transmission, communal ownership of repertoire, embedded opportunity for composition and improvisation, learning through movement, learning from musical wholes, legitimate peripheral participation, shared responsibility for learning within a learning community.
- informal learning of pop songs through media/technology
Benefits of Arts Programs
'Champions of Change' study (Fiske, 1999):-
- increased attendance in schools;
- engagement of different types of learners/learning styles;
- self-efficacy and self-esteem, personal success;
- change in school culture;
- greater teacher retention, less teacher burnout (Bellisario & Donovan, 2012);
- opportunity for teachers to be creative;
- opportunity for project-based teaching;
- making classroom teaching FUN!
Planning for Music Teaching
- Plan sequential and achievable 30 minute lessons.
- In each lesson, focus on one key Syllabus Outcome and 2 to 3 Indicators of Learning, plus the musical concepts.
- Plan activities that develop the musical skills.
- Incorporate key values and attitudes eg cooperation, interaction etc, plus value of music.
- Move from simple to complex lessons.
- Plan an assessment for each lesson as well as at the end of the sequence of learning.
- Timetable the lessons across the weeks of learning in the term or half term.
- Bellisario, K. & Donovan, L. (2012). Voices from the field: Teachers’ views on the relevance of arts integration. Cambridge, MA: Lesley University. See more at: http://www.artsedsearch.org/summaries/voices-from-the-field-teachers’-views-on-the-relevance-of-arts-integration#sthash.9GonKWM2.dpuf
- Dinham, J. (2011). Delivery Authentic Arts Education. Melbourne, Vic: Cengage Learning.
- Fiske, E.B. (1999). Champions of change: The impact of the arts on learning. Washington, D.C.: The Arts Partnership and the President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities.
- Harwood, E. & Marsh, K. (2013). "Children's Ways of Learning Inside and Outside the Classroom". The Oxford Handbook of Music Education. Vol 1. New York: Oxford University Press.
- NSW Board of Studies, (2006). Creative Arts Syllabus. Sydney: Board of Studies.
- NSW Education Act. (1990). Available at http://www.legislation.nsw.gov.au/maintop/fullhtml/inforce/act+8+1990+FIRST+0+N/
- Pascoe, R. et al. (2005). National Review of School Music Education: Augmenting the Diminished. Canberra, ACT: Australian Government.
- Russell-Bowie, Deirdre E. (2012) "Developing Preservice Primary Teachers’ Confidence and Competence in Arts Education using Principles of Authentic Learning.," Australian Journal of Teacher Education: Vol. 37: Iss. 1, Article 4.
DOI: 10.14221/ajte.2012v37n1.2 Available at: http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/vol37/iss1/4
- Spelke, E. (2008). Effects of music instruction on developing cognitive systems at the foundations of mathematics and science. In Asbury, C. & Rich, B. (Eds.), Learning, Arts, and the Brain, (pp. 17–49). New York/Washington, D.C.: The Dana Foundation. See more at: http://www.artsedsearch.org/summaries/effects-of-music-instruction-on-developing-cognitive-systems-at-the-foundations-of-mathematics-and-science#sthash.lZOOyVkr.dpuf
- Vaughan, T., Harris, J. & Caldwell, B.J. (2011). Bridging the gap in school achievement
through the arts: Summary Report. Victoria: The Song Room.
- Wetter, O. E., Koerner, F., & Schwaninger, A. (2009). Does musical training improve school performance? Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 37(4), 365-374. See more at: http://www.artsedsearch.org/summaries/does-musical-training-improve-school-performance#sthash.MUHoolGw.dpuf