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1. Sensorimotor Stage: The first stage lasts from birth to about 2 years of age.
Infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences such as seeing and hearing with motoric actions. PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT
Piaget stressed that children construct their world knowledge through
1. Schemes: are actions or mental representations that organize knowledge.
3. Organization: Grouping of isolated behaviors and thoughts into a higher order system, or arranging of items into categories.
4. Equilibration and stages of development: A mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES
SPRING/ SUMMER SESSION
MADONNA UNIVERSITY 2. Assimilation and Accommodation: Assimilation occurs when children incorporate new information into their existing schemes and accommodation occurs when children adjust their schemes to fit new information and experiences. Sensorimotor stage contains six substages
1. Simple reflexes: from birth to 1 month; sensation and actions coordinated through reflexes.
2. First habit and primary circular reaction: from 1 to 4 months; behavior without stimulus, repetitive actions.
3. Secondary circular reaction: From 4 to 8 months; object orientated, repetition of actions due to results.
4. Coordination of secondary circular reaction: from 8 to 12 months; coordinates vision and touch, hand and eye, and goal directed.
5. Tertiary circular reaction, novelty, and curiosity: from 12 to 18 months; purpose in exploration, start of curiosity, and interest in novelty.
6. Internalization of schemes: from 18 to 24 months; ability to use primitive symbols and shift to mental manipulation. EVALUATING PIAGET'S SENSORIMOTOR STAGE
Certain processes are crucial in transition from one stage to the next; for instance, the A-not-B error.
New search recommends some modifications.
Confusing issue of the nature v/s nurture. 2. PREOPERATIONAL STAGE
This is second stage from 2 years to 7 years
Children begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings. Stable concepts are formed, mental reasoning emerges, egocentrism, and magical beliefs are constructed.
Two substages: (a)The symbolic function substage; children gain the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present.
Their thought have limitations like:
Egocentrism; inability to distinguish between one view from another view.
And Animism; belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of action.
(b) Intuitive thought substage; children begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to all sort of questions. They seem so sure about their knowledge and understanding, yet are unaware of how they know and what they know. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE
This is third stage and children
can perform concrete operations.
Logical reasoning replaces intuitive
reasoning as long as the reasoning
can be applied to specific or concrete examples.
Conservation and classification take place. PIAGET'S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE
This is fourth and final stage.
Individual move beyond concrete
experiences and think in abstract
and more logical way.
Increase the tendency of abstract, idealistic, and logical thinking.
Adolescence think like scientists.
Having cognitive ability to develop hypotheses about ways to solve problems. Adolescent egocentrism is the heightened self consciousness, which is reflected in their belief that others are as interested in them as they are in themselves.
Imaginary audience is the aspect of adolescent egocentrism that involves attention getting behavior motivated by a desire to be noticed, visible, and onstage.
Personal fable is also a part of egocentrism that involves an adolescent's sense of uniqueness and invincibility. PIAGET AND EDUCATION
1. Take a constructivist approach: Children learn best when they are active and seek solution for themselves.
2. Facilitate, rather than direct, learning: Effective teachers design situations that allow students to learn by doing.
3. Considered the child's knowledge and level of thinking: Interpret what students are saying and respond according to their level.
4. Use ongoing assessment.
5. Promote the student's intellectual health: Children's learning should occur naturally.
6. Turn the classroom into a setting of exploration and
discovery. EVALUATING PIAGET'S THEORY
Great theory; Important things to look for in cognitive development, such as the shift from preoperational concrete operational thinking.
Some cognitive abilities emerge earlier as well as later than Piaget thought.
Some concrete operational concepts do not appear in synchrony, or stage-like as Piaget thought.
Culture and education impact on cognitive development.
Trained children who are at one cognitive stage (such as preoperational) can reason at higher cognitive stage.
The neo-Piagetians believe that children's cognitive development is more specific in many respects than Piaget thought. They give more emphasis to how children use memory, attention, and strategies to process information. VYGOTSKY'S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Vygotsky emphasized that children actively construct their knowledge and understanding through social interactions.
Their cognitive development depends on the tools provided by society,and their minds are shaped by the cultural context in which they live.
THE ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (ZPD): Range of tasks that are too difficult for child to master alone, but can be learned with guidance and assistance of adults or more skilled children.
Scaffolding: Changing the level of support toward independence. LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT: Children use language to plan, guide, and monitor behavior.
Language and thought initially develop independently of each other and then merge.
Self talk plays positive role in children's development.
1. Assess the child's ZPD.
2. Use the child's ZPD in teaching.
3. Use more skilled peers as teachers
4. Monitor and encourage children's use of private speech.
5. Place instruction in a meaningful context.
6. Transform the classroom with Vygotskian ideas. EVALUATING VYGOTSKY'S THEORY
Social constructivist approach emphasizes the social contexts of learning and the construction of knowledge through social interaction.
Importance of skills valued by specific cultures.
Overemphasizes role of language
Facilitators may be too helpful and overcontrolling. REFERENCES
Brainerd, C. J., (1978). Behavioral and brain sciences. Ontario, Canada: Cambridge University Press, (1), 02, 173-182.
santrock, J. W. (2011). Child development. (13th ed.). New York, N.Y.: McGraw Hill Companies, Inc.
http://www.simplypsychology.org/vygotsky.html QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
1. Compare and contrast Piaget's theory and Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development. Which theory, in your views, is more valid.
2. Which theory focuses on language? Is language development a part of cognitive theory and how? Why or why not language development is necessary for cognitive development?
3. Piaget divided the cognitive development into different stages, but all children do not develop physically and mentally according to the stages and ages told by Piaget. Can Piaget's theory of cognitive development be applied to all children.