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Shakespeare and the Military
Transcript of Shakespeare and the Military
Elizabethan Era Weapons, Armor, and The Navy
Elizabethan Era Battles
Who was the military?
Soldiers were between the ages of 16-60
The men recieved 1 shilling for each days work or training
Most volunteered but some were recruited
GENERAL or CAPTIN - A leader in command; commands units larger than a regiment. Othello
MARSHALL - Officers of varying rank.
ANCIENT - A military rank, properly of a standard-bearer (same word as "ensign"). Iago
LIEUTENANT - literally meaning "place-holder." Second in command to Othello. Cassio
The aristocrat class - on the top of the military; have the most political power. In charge of the navy, as well as initiating wars.
The Calvary - also a responsibility of the aristocrats. They supply chariots and horses and arm guards; usually act as commanders of small units.
Soldiers of heavy-infantry -equipped and attain skills to fight in wars.
Light-infantry soldiers that work under the leadership of generals and commanders.
The Royal Navy was developed by Henry VIII.
In 1548 there were 53 ships in the Fleet, with a total tonnage of about 11,000.
By 1558 there were only 26, with a tonnage of little more than 7,000.
In 1575 there were just 24 vessels; but by the time the invasion of the Spanish Armada, in the twenty-ninth year of Elizabeth's reign there were 34 ships in the Elizabethan navy.
The Elizabethan War with Spain from 1585 - 1603
Exploded due to various conflicts surrounding the wealth and power to be gained from trade from the New World.
Under Elizabeth I England became a Protestant country. Elizabeth was excommunicated by the Pope
The fanatical Catholics in Spain saw a war and the conquest of England as a religious crusade.
Seamen attacked Spanish vessels, taking any gold and silver.
In 1603 the war with Spain officially ended.
The Elizabethan Irish War - Desmond Rebellions
Sought to control Munster which was instigated by the Catholic Earl of Desmond dynasty
Protestant English government wanted to establish English military governors who would replace the local Irish Lords
Terrible famine in Munster
The Desmond clan was defeated
Desmond estates were allocated to the English who had fought in the war
"Marshal," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2008 http://encarta.msn.com © 1997-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
Armor was used mainly for decoration in parades and ceremonies - not for protection purposes in war.
Became more and more expensive and elaborate.
Elizabethan Tournaments - featured Elizabethan entertainment. Tournaments kept the knight in excellent condition for the role he might need to play during warfare.
Arbalest - This is the correct term for a Crossbow
Basilard - A two-edged, long bladed dagger
Bill - A polearm with a wide cutting blade occasionally with spikes and hooks
Billhook - Capable of killing Knights and their horses
Caltrop: Sharp spikes on 12 - 18 feet poles used, in formation, to maim a horse
Halberd - A broad, short axe blade on a 6 foot pole with a spear point at the top with a back spike
Mace - The mace was an armor-fighting weapon. The Mace developed from a steel ball on a wooden handle, to an elaborately spiked steel war club
Pike - A long spear measuring between 18 feet and 20 feet
Poleaxe - A group of pole-mounted weapons. Were all variations of poles measuring 6 feet long with different 'heads' - spikes, hammers, axe