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Mexican War of Independence

IB History Project
by

Sarah peterson

on 29 November 2012

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Transcript of Mexican War of Independence

The Mexican War of
Independence By: Breland Edwards, Taylor McCormick, Sarah Peterson, Justin Petzer, and Brendan Geer Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla In 1808 Hidalgo, a Catholic priest, became the leader of an underground movement of independence that focused of new ideas of nationalism as well as political liberty. On September 16, 1810, Hidalgo issued the “Grito de Dolores” at a Sunday morning mass which began the rally of armed forces to begin the fight for Mexican independence. Hidalgo called for end of slavery as well as the Indian tribute and the redistribution of land to dispossessed Indians which led to the support of Creoles and greatly increased the independence movement. Jose Maria Morelos Morelos joined Miguel Hidalgo in 1810 after the “Grito de Dolores” and fought in the rebellion for Mexican independence. When Hidalgo was executed in 1811, Jose Morelos became the leader of the revolution. He is now considered a hero for capturing the cities of Oaxaca and Acapulco, Mexico’s main specific seaport. Agustin de Iturbide Iturbide was a leader of the royalist army throughout most of the Mexican War of Independence who fought against the armies of Morelos and Guerrero. Although he was a leader of the royals army throughout most of the war he realized that if Ferdinand was disposed of and could no longer become ruler of Mexico, the reign could go to himself. He proposed the Plan of Iguala that contained three guarantees; Mexico would become independent from Madrid, Roman Catholicism would be the official religion of Mexico, and all of Spanish blood, whether born in Spain or in the Americas, would be able to live as equals in the new state. "Emperor Agustin I" Ignacio Allende After the start of the war of independence, Allende served under Hidalgo as a lieutenant during the first few months of the war. It soon became evident that Hidalgo did not have enough military experience to lead an army so in January, 1811, Allende replaced Hidalgo as the leader of the revolutionary forces. In July 1811, Allende and his army were ambushed near Acatita de Baján, Coahuila, and Allende and Hidalgo were captured; they were executed by firing squad soon after their capture. Other Key Individuals Felix Maria Calleja Calleja was a Spanish military officer and eventually a viceroy of New Spain during the Mexican War of Independence who was awarded the title of Count of Calderon at the conclusion of the war. Guadalupe Victoria Victoria was a military officer who fought for the independence of Mexico and would eventually become the first president of Mexico. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Although Santa Anna fought for the Spanish military during the Mexican War of Independence he would become a military leader in Mexico and hold various political positions. Mexican War of Independence Timeline _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1810, October 30-Battle Monte de la Cruce 1811, January 17-Battle of Calderon Bridge 1811, March-Hidalgo executed, leadership passed to Morelos 1810, September 16-Hidalgo triggers war for Mexican independence 1813, September-Morelos presents “Sentiments of the Nation” 1814, November-Morelos captured and handed to Inquisition 1815, December 22-Morelos executed by firing squad 1820, January-Fernando VII forced to restore Constitution of 1812 in Spain 1820-Iturbide appointed commander of royalist army 1821, February 24-Iturbide issues Plan de Iguala 1821, August 24-Spanish officials sign Treaty of Córdoba, establishing Mexican independence 1821, September 28-Issue a Declaration of Independence of “the Mexican Empire” 1822, May 21-Iturbide crowned himself emperor of Mexico Battle of Monte de las Cruces Battle of Monte de las Cruces was one of the pivotal battles of the early Mexican War of Independence. It was fought between the insurgent troops of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and Ignacio Allende against the royalist troops of General Torcuato Trujillo in the Sierra de las Cruces mountains between Mexico City and Toluca. The battle marks the furthest advance of the first rebel campaign, before Hidalgo decided to retreat towards Guadalajara, and not attack Mexico City, despite the fact that he won the battle. Battle of Calderon Bridge The Battle of Calderon Bridge was a turning point in the war and was fought east of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico on Jan. 17, 1811. The insurgents were near victory in the battle when an ammunition wagon exploded, panicking the troops. They scattered, and the Spanish forces emerged victorious. The loss of this battle effectively dashed Mexican hopes of a quick independence from Spain. Independence was delayed another ten years, until 1821. Political Divisions During Mexican War of Independence Map of Hidalgo and Allende's Path Map of United States and Mexico Foreign Aid Neither the Spanish nor the revolutionists relayed on foreign aid during the Mexican War of Independence. Treaty of Cordoba Treaty Concluded in the Town of Cordova on the 24th of August, 1821, between Don Juan O'Donnoju, Lieutenant-General of the Armies of Spain, and Don Augustin de Iturbide, First Chief of the Imperial Mexican Army of the "Three Guarantees . The treaty officially proclaimed Mexico as an independent nation and established the basic fundamentals of the Mexican government New Spain is recognized as an independent empire, which is defined as "monarchical, constitutional and moderate." The Mexstar is known as the "lonestar" that has become a symbol of Mexico's independence.
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