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Soil Formation, Composition and Classification
Transcript of Soil Formation, Composition and Classification
Climate also determines the speed at which parent materials undergo chemical weathering, a process in which existing minerals are broken down into new mineral components.
Climate also influences the developing soil by determining the types of plant growth that occur. Topography, or relief, is another important factor in soil formation. The degree of slope on which a soil forms helps to determine how much rainfall will run off the surface and how much will be retained by the soil. The amount of time a soil requires to develop varies widely according to the action of the other soil-forming factors. humus:
a dark-brown organic component of soil that is derived from decomposed plant and animal remains and animal excrement. horizon:
a horizontal layer of soil that can be distinguished from the layers above and below it; also a boundary between two rock layers that have different physical properties. A horizon or topsoil:
the upper fertile layer of soil, from which plant roots take nutrients; a mixture of organic materials and small rock particles.
B horizon or subsoil:
the compacted soil beneath the topsoil; contains minerals leached from topsoil, clay, or sometimes humus.
partially altered parent material.
a layer from which clay, iron, and aluminum oxides have been lost by a process known as leaching (when water carries materials in solution down from one soil level to another). Soil composition refers to the material of which it is made.
The color of the soil is related to its composition.
Soil moisture can also affect its color. Soil Classification:
Rock material in soil consists of three main types: Clay, Silt and Sand.
The proportion of clay, silt and sand in soil depends on the soil's parent rock. soil profile:
a vertical section of soil that shows the layers of horizons