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Review of the English Grammar

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by

Joan De la Cruza

on 31 October 2014

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Transcript of Review of the English Grammar

Overview
Introduction
The Sentence Sense
Parts of Speech
Nouns
Pronouns
Verbs
Adjectives
Adverbs
Conjunctions
Prepositions
Interjections
Articles
Punctuations
Capitalization
Abbreviations
Indention and Justification
Numbers
Spelling
Introduction
The Sentence Sense
Parts of Speech
Nouns
Pronouns
Review of the English Grammar
Rae Roselle Enrile-Gammad
Instructor

Three Negative Effects of Poor Grammar
1. Flawed grammar makes the report harder to read
2. Grammar errors change the facts of a report
3. Bad grammar smudges the good reputation of the police department.
“If you cannot be meticulous in such obvious detail as grammar, how can you convince me that you had been meticulous with the data in this report?”
-http://pulisnapogi.blogspot.com/2014/04/pnp-reforms-continuing-article-part-1_21.html
A sentence is a collection of words that is grammatically complete by itself and usually expresses a complete idea.
It typically contains both a subject and a predicate.
Starts with a capital letter and ends with a period or full stop
A predicate MUST contain a finite verb that relates to, or ‘agrees with’, the subject.
Classification of Sentence According to Function
Statement: The cat sat on that mat.
Question: Did the cat sit on that mat?
Command: Sit on that mat, cat!
Exclamation: Wow! Look at that cat!
Clause
A clause, like a simple sentence, is a string of words that has a subject (even if it is understood) and a predicate that includes a finite verb.

Independent (main, principal) clause - can stand alone as a sentence.
e.g. I love reading.
Dependent (subordinate) clause - does not make sense on its own.
e.g. Because I love reading . . .

Clauses can combine to create compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences.
Simple Sentence is made up of one independent clause
Sherlock Holmes waited.

Compound sentence is made up of two or more independent clauses joined by either a semicolon or a coordinating conjunction such as for, and, nor, but, or, yet, or so.
Sherlock Holmes waited; however, Watson delayed his visit.

Types of Sentences According to Forms
Loose sentence positions the important information at the beginning.

Plain language reforms have become law in many countries because law makers believe that citizens should have access to documents they can understand.

Periodic sentence, on the other hand, positions the important information at the END.

Because law makers believe that citizens should have access to documents they can understand, plain language reforms have become law in many countries.

Loose/Periodic
Sentence Errors
- consists of two sentences or ideas written as one without appropriate punctuations or connecting word separating the ideas. It can either be:

Comma splice
- where two complete ideas are separated by a comma only

Example: The altercation occurred in front of the victim's residence, the suspect was already drunk at that time.

Fused sentence
- where there is no punctuation at all between ideas.

Example: The altercation occured in front of the victim's residence the suspect was allegedly drunk at that time.

Correct:
The altercation occured in front of the victim's residence. The suspect was already drunk at that time.
Or
The altercation occured in front of the victim's residence; the suspect was allegedly drunk at that time.
1. Run-On Sentence
4 ways to correct a comma splice and fused sentence:

Comma Splice: Two police officers were awarded yesterday, one of them was disabled.
Fused Sentence: Two police officers were awarded yesterday one of them was disabled.

a. Use a Coordinating Conjunction:
Two police officers were awarded yesterday, and one of them was disabled.
b. Use a semi-colon:
Two police officers were awarded yesterday; one of them was disabled.
c. Use a Subordinating Conjunction:
Two police officers were awarded yesterday although one of them was disabled.
d. Use a period:
Two police officers were awarded yesterday. One of them was disabled.
2. Misplaced Modifier
This refers to modifiers or descriptive phrases that are not placed beside or near the word(s) they are supposed to modify or describe resulting in ambiguous or confusing sentences.

Incorrect: This action is in compliance with the Chief, PNP's directive to place police personnel under restrictive custody
involved in criminal complaints
.

Correct: This action is in compliance with the Chief, PNP's directive to place police personnel
involved in criminal complaints
under restrictive custody.

3. Fragment
A fragment consists of phrases or groups of words that lack either a subject or verb an does not express a complete thought.

(Subject is missing)
Incorrect: When uncovered, reveal a male cadaver, clad in white shirt soiled with blood and a pair of gray Corduroy short pants.
Correct: When uncovered,
the stretcher revealed
a male cadaver, clad in white shirt soiled with blood and a pair of gray Corduroy short pants.

(Verb is missing)
Incorrect: The motive of the killing due to jealousy by the suspect.
Correct: The motive of the killing
was due
to jealousy by the suspect.

4. Dangling Modifier
A sentence has a dangling modifier if the subject of the main idea or main clause is not the one that the phrase modifies.

Incorrect: To enter the police service
,
mental and physical preparations should be made by the applicants.

Correct:
To enter the police service,

applicants
should make mental and physical preparations.

Also correct:
To enter the police service,
applicants
should prepare mentally and physically.
5. Faulty Parallelism
Faulty parallelism occurs when a sentence contains elements of different grammatical kind. This sentence error disrupts the receiver's flow of thought and expectations.

Non-parallel: PO3 Amelita Barnedo is a model employee, ideal wife and
loves her parents
.
Parallel: PO3 Amelita Barnedo is a model employee, ideal wife and
loving daughter.

Non-parallel: PO3 Charlie Austria arrived in the crime scene, interviewed witnesses and
evidence was gathered by him.
Parallel: PO3 Charlie Austria arrived in the crime scene, interviewed witnesses and
gathered evidence
.

6. Use of Split Infinitives
Incorrect: The witness agreed
to readily testify
on the kidnapping incident.

Correct: The witness readily agreed
to testify
on the kidnapping incident.
Activity 1: Answer each of the questions below:
1. To be, or not to be’ is an example of what kind of sentence problem?
a. Sentence Fragment
b. Run-On
c. Dangling Modifier
2. 'The cat sat on the mat.’ is an interrogative sentence.
a. True
b. False
3. 'I asked whether the cat had sat on the mat.' Is this
a. A question
b. A statement

A noun is a word that names something: a person, a place, a thing, a quality, an act, or an idea.

Singular/Plural Nouns
Nouns can be either singular or plural. For most nouns, the plural is formed by adding S or ES to the singular:
book-books boss-bosses
If there is a vowel before the Y at the end of a noun, simply add S. If there is a consonant before the Y at the end of a noun, replace the Y with an I and add ES.
Boy-boys ally-allies
Some nouns are count nouns—nine items or fewer or seven little Australians. And just as there are count nouns, there are noncount nouns as well, that is, nouns that cannot be counted—wisdom, underwear, atmosphere.
And then there are those tricky nouns that can be both count and noncount. Take the example of ‘room’—we may use it to say there is ‘no room at the table’ and also that there are ‘no rooms at the inn’.
Concrete/Abstract
Concrete nouns -
can be seen, touched, smelt, or tasted because they refer to tangible items such as
books, chairs, or food et cetera.
Abstract nouns -
cannot be detected by the senses because they name ideas, concepts, generalities, qualities, notions and trends—
eg. pleasure, beauty, wisdom, justice.
Common/Proper
Common noun -
a non-specific item such as
house, book or violin,
Proper noun -
names a specific thing such as a
person, a location, a building, an event,
- always take a capital letter.

Captain Pugwash is a fearless captain

Collective nouns - used for references to gatherings of entities (people, animals, plants and so on). They can be singular or plural, depending on your intended meaning, for example: ‘the group were divided on that issue’ BUT ‘the group was unanimous on that issue’.
The word ‘number’ is a collective noun that can be singular or plural—a number of students are already here (plural). The number of students who are here is impressive (singular).
Some nouns have irregular plurals:
child/children, mouse/mice
Other nouns have no singular:
auspices, clothes, cattle
And then there are those nouns that have no plural:
training, furniture, milk
Latin-based plural
criterion-criteria phenomenon-phenomena
BOTH English and Latin plurals
indexes or indices
Complex sentence is made up of one dependent clause subordinated to one independent clause, either at the beginning (Left-branching), in the middle (mid-branching), or at the end (right-branching).
While Watson moved the lamp,
Sherlock Holmes waited. (Left Branching)
Sherlock Holmes,
though he was anxious to have his dinner,
waited. (Mid Branching)
Sherlock Holmes waited,
while Watson moved the lamp.
(Right Branching)

Compound-complex is made up of a second independent clause added to a complex sentence, or a dependent clause added to a compound sentence
While Watson moved the lamp,
Sherlock Holmes waited, and was missed at Lloyd’s registers.
Sherlock Holmes waited, and was missed at Lloyd’s registers,
because he was a good customer.

4. Select the subject of the following sentence. 'Chicken I can live without.'
a. Chicken
b. I
c. Can
d. Live
e. Without
5. What is the structure of this sentence? 'The report that I needed to write proved to be difficult.'
a. Simple
b. Complex
c. Compound
d. Compound-complex
Noun cases
Case -
the form of a noun (or pronoun) that shows the reader how the noun (or pronoun) functions in a sentence.
Nouns can function as a
subject
, an
object
, a
complement
, and an
appositive
.
Sherlock Holmes
,
the detective
,
tapped his
pipe
. He felt a
sense
of
foreboding
.
Possessive Nouns
-
shows ownership

the book’s cover
the books’ authors.
Two Common Problems in Noun Usage
Noun string
- occurs when too many nouns are bunched together, making it hard for the reader to discern their meaning in the sentence. The best remedy is to un-string the nouns to make it easier for the reader to process them.
Incorrect: an uncertainty management system
Correct: a system for managing uncertainty

Incorrect: disaster victim identification specialist
Correct: an identification specialist for disaster victims
Nominalisation
- a noun derived from a verb or an adjective. These ‘heavy nouns’ are sometimes called ‘shun’ words because they commonly end in ‘tion’. There are several other endings to be wary of such as ‘age’, ‘al’, ‘ance’, ‘ence’, and many more. More often than not, the ‘heavy’ noun can be replaced by a verb.
Our lack of knowledge about local conditions precluded determination of committee action effectiveness in fund allocation to those areas in greatest need of assistance.
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