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The Second Industrial Revolution

Inventions, Innovations, & Technologies (Created By: Nicholas Portugal, Sheridan Anderson, & Ryan Linton – AP US History B6)
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Nicholas Portugal

on 17 February 2014

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Transcript of The Second Industrial Revolution

The Second Industrial Revolution
Introduction
In this presentation you will learn about 16 different technologies from the Second Industrial Revolution:
Transcontinental Railroad
1856 - Railroads extended past far west of the Mississippi River.
1859 - Crossed past Missouri River.
1861 - About 30,000 miles of railroad track were laid in the entire country.
May 10, 1869 - Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads met at Promontory Point, Utah.
1890 - About 180,000 miles of railroad track were laid in the entire country.
Steam Ships/Engine
1812 - The first successful steamship in Europe, the Glasgow-built Comet, was in service on the River Clyde.
1840 - The Cunard shipping line opened.
1847 - Cunard’s Hermann and Washington steamships provided a regular cross-Atlantic service.
1854 - John Elder invented the compound steam engine which meant that one tonne of coal was doing as much work as three tonne had done in 1845 - Made the ships more efficient.

* Water transport was important in moving heavy machinery and raw materials such as lead and copper at the time.
Steel
1) Transcontinental Railroad
2) Steam Ships/Engine
3) Steel
4) Skyscrapers
5) Light Bulb
6) Telephone
7) Refrigerator Car
8) Typewriter
9) Sewing Machine
10) Microphone
11) Phonograph
12) Motion Pictures
13) First Camera (Kodak)
14) Airplane
15) Electric-Power Printing Press
16) First Machine Gun
Inventions, Innovations, & Technologies
The Emergence of
Capitalism
Capitalism can be defined as the economic system by which private businesses and individuals control the means of production in factories, machines, and on the land, and utilize its yields to generate profit.
Skyscrapers
The Light Bulb
Telephone
1876 - Thomas Alva Edison became a pioneer on the new industrial frontier upon establishing the world’s first research laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey.
1880 - The incandescent light bulb was patented, and later, an entire system for producing and distributing electrical power was spread widely.
George Westinghouse, along with Edison, contributed significantly to the innovations that made electricity safer and less expensive as the decades progressed into the 20th century.
1890 - Electrical power ran numerous machines, from fans to printing presses. This inexpensive, convenient source of energy soon became available in homes, and powered basic necessity machines, including the fans and printing presses.
Electric streetcars allowed for cheap urban travel and outward expansion of cities.
With electricity, manufacturers were given ability to locate their plants wherever they desired, not particularly near ports and rivers.
Armour and Swift Meat-Packing Plant and consumer industries were influenced by the widespread of electricity.

Refrigerator Car
Typewriter
Sewing Machine
Microphone
Motion Pictures
First Camera (Kodak)
Phonograph
- Known as a record player invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison.
- Waveforms in discs allowed for the music to play through vibrations.
- First to rebuild and record sound.
- Alexander Graham Bell built up more modern version in 1880s using wax covered disc and a cutting stylus that moved from side to side.
- Represented the single largest product to be marketed by the Victor Talking Machine Company, and dramatically increased gross earnings about 16 times over from 1902-1917.
- Represented an “item of the people.” Citizens of any race, nationality, ethnicity, etc. could utilize this invention, and upon mass production,
it was was more affordable for everyone to be able to listen to music, rather than just those who could afford to attend expensive concerts.

Airplane
Electric-Powered Printing Press
First Machine Gun
Timeline of
Inventions
- In the early 20th century, brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright began experimenting with new engines powerful enough to keep ‘heavier-than-air’ craft aloft. They first built a glider then they commissioned a four-cylinder internal combustion engine, chose a propeller, and designed a biplane with a 40’4’’ wingspan.

- 1901 - First successful flying model created by Samuel Langley.

- December 17, 1903 was the first successful flight. Located at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, it covered 120 feet and lasted about 12 seconds.
- 1910 - First successful take off from a ship.
* During the late 1880’s, oil wasn't the only natural resource in abundance in the US; there were significant reserves of coal and iron.
- 1887 - Prospectors discovered iron ore deposits spanning more than 100 miles long and 3 miles wide in Mesabi Range of Minnesota.
* While iron was a dense metal, it is soft and breaks, and is vulnerable to rusting, due to its high amounts of carbon. Removing carbon from the iron produced a lighter, more flexible, and rust-resistant metal, called steel.
* The Bessemer Process developed independently by British manufacturer Henry Bessemer and American iron maker William Kelly around 1856.
- 1880 - American manufacturers were using the new method to produce more than 90% of the nation’s steel.
- Eventually replaced by the open-hearth process, and enabled manufacturers to produce quality steel from scrap metal as well as raw materials.
* Steel changed the face of the nation with architectural structures such as the Brooklyn Bridge, completed in 1883, spanning 1595 feet of East River in NYC.

* 1876 - Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson developed the telephone.
* Allowed for work in office environments, and new jobs generated for women.
* Allowed for faster communication compared to the telegraph and telegram, and was more efficiently transmitted over longer distances.
- Info about Telephone Operators:
- In the 19th century, the telephone had to be handled by a telephone operator, a person who connected wires via a switchboard.
- Young men, who were the first operators, proved unsatisfactory during the advent of the telephone.
- Complaints were issued concerning the fact that male operators would use profane language and talked back to callers.
- Women would soon replace male operators, and were more likely to accept the low ten-dollar weekly wages.
- Chicago ad in 1904: “Every [telephone] order, inquiry, or request will be quickly and intelligently cared for.” (Featuring female operators)
* 1900 - There are over a million telephones in the United States.

* 1846 - Elias Howe patented the the sewing machine and it was first found in shoe factories.
- I. M. Singer added the foot treadle, which reduced the time it took to sew garments and led to the factory production of clothing.

* Clothing prices tumbled by more than 75 percent, increasing numbers of working people could afford to buy store-bought clothes.
* This gave more women the chance to work.
* Frenchmen named Louis Lumiere was credited for the invention of motion pictures.
- First motion picture camera was called the "wheel of life," or the "zoopraxiscope" in 1867, first patented by William Lincoln.
* Lumiere invented the motion camera, projector, and the film processor all in one called the Cinematography.
* Some of the first films were one-reel, ten minute sequences, consisting mostly of vaudeville skits or faked newsreels.
*1878 - Eadweard Muybridge, photographic pioneer, created
The Horse in Motion,
which was arguably the first American motion picture short film.
*1903 - The first “modern” firm, eight-minute silent feature called
The Great Train Robbery
, debuted five-cent theaters coined "nickelodeons."
- Films could be shown as many as 16 times per day.
- In this manner, entrepreneurs in the new film industry could generate significantly larger profits.
- 1907 - About 3000 nickelodeons were scattered about the country.
- 1920’s - The thirst for American entertainment both in arts and on screen and stage seemed “unquenchable.”
- 1927 - First movie with sound,
The Jazz Singer
.
- 1928 - Walt Disney’s
Steamboat Willie
was the first animated film containing sounds.

* 1890 - The literacy rate in the United States rose to approximately 90%.
- American mills began to produce large quantities of cheap paper from wood pulp.
- New paper was durable enough to withstand high-speed presses.
* 1890’s - Electrically-powered printing press was invented, and had the abilities to print on both sides of a continuous paper roll, compared to just one side.
* With widespread production and lowering of costs of literature, newspapers, books, and magazines were made more affordable.
* By the early 20th century, the ordinary person could buy a newspaper for a penny per copy.
- From Johannes Gutenberg’s first printing press in 1450, to Earl Stanhope’s English cast iron printing press in 1800, to the Koenig, Treadwell, and Hoe printing presses, to the 1890’s electrically-powered printing press, printing has evolved over more than 400 years in Northern Europe and the United States.

- 1868 - Christopher Sholes invented the typewriter in America, which changed the world of work. (The typewriter in Britain dates back to 1714)
- 1873 - The Sholes & Glidden Type Writer, began production.
- 1874 - Sholes & Glidden Type Writer appeared on the American market for the first time.
- 1880 - The Caligraph appeared on the American Market - was the second typewriter to appear.
- Along with the telephone, the typewriter helped profoundly impact the office work environment and generated new female jobs.
- 1910 - Office roles counted for nearly 40% of the clerical workforce.

Technology played an important role in setting the precedent for capitalism leading into the 20th century, because the lives of people in every social stratum had improved significantly. It brought a decrease in infant-mortality rates and increase in relative life expectancy.
Hardships and Employment Factors:

Asian, Hispanic, and European immigrants and Civil-war veterans worked for low wages and often faced discrimination.
Very dangerous conditions to work in; Native Americans greatly opposed railroad construction and mounted treacherous attacks upon workers.
1888 - Casualties totaled more than 2000 employees killed and 20,000 injured.
Time zones were calculated and established for different areas. (Boston was 12 minutes ahead of New York, for instance.)
1884 - International conference set worldwide time zones, incorporating railroad time.

Chinese Rail Workers
Mexican Rail Workers
Typical Work Environment
Irish Rail Workers
Political & Economic Impact of the Railroad

Railroads were seen as very necessary and profitable to the federal government and expansion into the Far West.
Since nobody would pay substantial funds to cultivate the millions of acres of wild, open land, at the same providing their own transportation, railroads were constructed to ease the flow of people, cattle, grains, and other products to quickly developing urban areas.
To promote railroad construction, the federal government divided land adjacent to the railroads into square parcels to be sold to settlers, the latter being left for railroads.
The Homestead Act and Pacific Railway Act of 1872 encouraged Western expansion by respectively designating acres of land for cultivation and settlement, and new railroad paths.
Government would designate much higher prices for land that was dominated by railroads and would receive its services.
As the railroad was the principal source of capital and transport in the West, and workers relied on it, there was room for significant exploitation to be involved.
Railroads could charge any rate they wished to transport objects and people as to take advantage of those who only had one route with which to get around and retrieve products.
Railroad executives formed the Credit Mobilier construction organization, which was offered lucrative contracts. To keep the organization secretive, the organization gave away hundreds of shares of stocks to congressmen, senators, and state legislators.
As a result of this, it caused government officials to exercise oversight on the railroads themselves.
1883 - William Le Baron Jenney designed the first skyscraper with a steel frame - the Home Insurance Building in Chicago, IL.
1889 - George Fuller built the Tacoma Building in Chicago.

- Steel was particularly important to the construction of skyscrapers.
- Before Jenney’s idea, the weight of large buildings was supported entirely by their walls or iron frames, which limited the height of the building.
- The steel frame however, could support the weight allowing architects to build as high as they wished.
- The concept of skyscrapers set the precedent of progress and modernism that persisted into the 20th and 21st centuries. Tall skyscrapers continue to represent the epitome of modernism today.
The First Skyscraper:
Home Insurance Building
in Chicago, IL
1842 - Experimentation with railroad refrigerator cars was first conducted.
November 26, 1867 - J.B. Sutherland was granted the first patent for the refrigerator car.
1877 - Joel Tiffany, Chicago lawyer, receives the second patent for the refrigerator car.

Used ice in summer, with four inches of powdered charcoal between inner and outer walls in order to protect cargo.

Refrigerator Car Process:

1) Car is cleaned with hot water or steam.
2) Car undergoes 4 hours of "pre-cooling" in which cold air was blown through a hatch, allowing warmer air to be expelled through other hatches.
3) Ice bunkers were filled either manually on dock or automatically via mechanical field icing cars.
4) Delivered to shipper for loader, & ice topped off.
5) Cars would be fumigated depending on cargo and destination.
6) Train departs to the Eastern markets.
7) Cars raced in transit approx. once a day.
8) Upon arrival at destination, cars were unloaded.
9) If in demand, cars would return to point of origin empty. If not, they would be cleaned and possibly used for a dry shipment.

Kept foods at optimal temperatures to prevent perishing of meats and other goods.
Carbon was utilized in the cooling process.
With increased meat production in the West, the refrigerator cars were able to carry the meats over large distances in a short time.
19th Century
Microphone
21st Century
Microphone
1827 - Sir Charles Wheatstone first coins the term “microphone.”
1877 - Emile Berliner invented the first microphones used as a telephone voice transmitter, based on "loose contact" between two metal electrodes.
1878 - David Edward Hughes invented the carbon microphone - his microphone is the early model of ones in use today.
1886 - Thomas Edison refined the carbon microphone into his carbon-button transmitter.

- The invention of the carbon microphone was critical in the development of broadcasting and recording industries.
- Later in the 1970’s, microphones were significantly improved as they became more dynamic and condenser, which enabled lower sound level sensitivity and clearer sound recording.
- Microphones remain important to the broadcasting and recording industries in the 21st century, and have become so widespread that one could record any type of audio on their iPhone today.
First Filming Equipment
Zoopraxiscope Simulation
Walt Disney's
Steamboat
Willie
, 1928
1884 - George Eastman, American inventor, patents photographic film that was stored in a roll.
1888 - The first camera was perfected and influenced the creation of the Kodak Company.
1892 - Kodak was founded in Rochester, New York. The name “kodak” was influenced by the notion that the company name should be able to be pronounced by anyone, regardless of race, and that it was dissimilar to any existing words, something unique.
1900 - The Brownie camera was sold for a price of $1, and brought photography to the mass market. Basic cardboard boxes took images on 2 ¼ inch film.
1930 - Eastman Kodak Company launched on the Dow Jones Industrial Average index, where it would remain for 74 years.

The photography industry remains an important sector even to this day, with modern camera innovations occurring within the smartphone and digital camera markets.

Traditional Cameras
Modern-Age
Camera
Gutenberg
Press
(15th Century)
Electrically-Powered
Printing Press
(19th Century)
Wireless Printer
(21st Century)
1861 - The Gatling gun was patented by Richard Gatling - a weapon capable of firing 200 rounds per minute.
1862 - The first successful machine gun had been created.
1885 - Maxim machine gun was invented by Hiram Maxim, and offered it to be first used in Britain in 1885.
1918 - General John T. Thompson invented a hand held machine gun called the Thompson Submachine Gun or the Tommy Gun.

- Came to dominate and personify the battlefields of World War I, but in 1914, were considered a rather “primitive” device in warfare.
- 1914 machine gun was placed on a flat tripod, and had to be operated by anywhere from four to six people in order to wield efficient impact.
- Weighed between 30-60 kg approximately.
- Would rapidly overheat in warfare and deem relatively useless without cooling mechanisms, which demonstrated the downside of this technology.
- However, compared to a rifle, one machine gun would easily do the work of 60-100 rifles, depending on quality and accuracy of firepower.
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