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Theories of Translation
Transcript of Theories of Translation
Eugene A. Nida
What is interlingual communication??
Facilitation of linguistic communication between members of distinct communities. (basically bilinguals like me and YOU.)
"In order to understand the nature of translation, we need to focus on the processes and procedures of interlingual communication."
Different Perspectives of Processes of Translating.
A statement that is seemingly contradictory or opposed to common sense and yet is perhaps true.
Paradoxes of interlingual communication:
amazingly complex (I.A Richards 1953)
completely natural (Harris & Sherwood 1978)
"Interpreting is often done by children with amazingly fine results, especially before they have gone to school and have learned something about nouns, verbs, and adjectives."
Eugene A. Nida
diversity of language
differences of corresponding cultures
problems of interpersonal communication
changes in literary fashion'
distinct kinds of content
circumstances in which translations are to be used.
Translating is a technology which is dependent on a number of disciplines
WHAT ARE THEY?
There are 4 major Perspectives of Interlingual Communication
Concerned with the interpretation of the text and how it is presented.
Concerned with the accuracy of the translation and the "faithfulness" to the original text.
Examples that were used : Bible translations ( they were analyzed)
Translator of Early ages;
Luther ( who was the most influential)
Modern Representatives; (were concerned with the text)
John Felstiner (Author of Translating Neruda)
Study of diverse linguistic structures and functions of language.
It was said; because translation involves at least two languages, it was inevitable that linguists were interested in the process.
Chomsky ( with his colleagues added dynamic dimension to language structure thru the use of transformations.
Uses the Communication module consisting;
(sender, message, receptor, feedback,noise,setting and medium)
Translation is a message that is decoded and the recoded by the translator in order to reach the receptor.
Sociolinguists who study the use of language in a society have made important contributions to the study of translation based on communication theory.
Functions of language:
(informative, expressive, imperative, cognitive)
According to the author, the minimal requirement for adequacy of a translation would be that the receptor language readers are made aware of the emotional and cognitive responses of the source language readers to the text. Maximal requirement would be that the responses of the receptor language readers are similar to those of the source language ones.
Georges Mounin and Katharina Reiss are examples of those who look to the communication paradigm behind translation theory.
This perspective views communication as an act that involves numerous codes.
Words also have paralinguistic and extralinguistic features. It says that people look at background information, and they make judgement about the speaker's sincerity, commitment to truth, breadth of learning, specialized knowledge, ethnic background, concern for others, and personal attractiveness.
All of this says a lot about someone's response to a statement.
The socio-semiotic perspective is more comprehensive, it looks at language as rooted in the socio-cultural context of everyday life.
Advantages of the sociosemiotic approach;
It perceives language as the offshoot of a host of socio-cultural factors and hence rooted in the everyday world of reality, rather than in an ideal speaker community.
It can be verbally creative as its focus is on actually spoken language; it is not bound by reductive rules of language.
It does not conceive of language as a rigid system with clear cut boundaries and a well established meaning underlying it. It acknowledges the malleability of language and the indeterminacy of meaning.
It takes into account the interdisciplinary nature of codes, which tends to expand the boundaries of translation activity.
! Conclude !
Philological; looks at source text, including its production, transmission, and history of interpretation
Linguistic; looks at the language involved in restructuring the source-language message into the receptor language.
Communicative; looks at the communication events which constitute the setting of the source message and the translated text.
Sociosemiotic; looks at the variety of codes in the respective communication events.
: the scientific study of language and its structure
the study of humankind, human culture and society.
the scientific study of the human mind and its functions.
the branch of knowledge dealing with the principles and methods by which information is conveyed.
the branch of biology that deals with the nervous
( TTR: vol 4,No 1, 1991, p 19-32-- Eugene A. Nida)