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British Imperialism in Africa

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Rachel Liff

on 9 October 2012

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Transcript of British Imperialism in Africa

British Imperialism in Africa Katie Douglas
Efgen Efrem
Rachel Liff Background Between 1750 and 1914, Africa went from complete independence to near-complete colonial domination
Until 19th century, Britain and majority of European powers confined themselves to coasts of Africa
Slave trade
By 1870 10% of Africa under control of Europe
1900 Europeans ruled 90% of Africa The Scramble for Africa Excuse for “Scramble for Africa” explorer David Livingston called for crusade to end slavery in Africa by the introduction of the three C’s: commerce, Christianity, and civilization
Berlin Conference 1884-1885 was convened by Otto von Bismarck British Concerns Keeping lines open to India
Acquisition of further territory in interest of establishing Cape-to-Cairo railway
Potential of mineral rich territories To protect these interests, Britain secured Egypt and South Africa, but during last 20 years of 19th century Britain also annexed or occupied: Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, Southern and Northern Rhodesia, British Somaliland, Botswana, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Ghana, Malawi (roughly 30% of African continent) South Africa Economy and Exports Until the discovery of diamonds in 1857, South Africa had been exclusively agricultural and of little importance
1935 export of gold 47.6% of the total export of Africa, mostly produced by Union of South Africa
South Africa’s economy completely dependent upon the mining industry British Arrival 1795 British forces arrive in Cape Town to keep in out of the hands of Napoleonic forces
Remained in British possession until 1803
1820 British authorities convinced 5,000 middle class British citizens to move to Cape Town and settle land
Great Trek in 1835 of the Boers due to economic difficulties and travel north to establish Republic of Natal
Anglo-Zulu War The First Boer War The Cape Colony began to spread further into territory occupied by the Boers, including gold mines of Transvaal
Discord turns into the First Boer War (1880-1881) for the victory of the Boers to become the South African Republic
1899-1902 conflict between British colonies of Cape Town and Natal and the Boer Republics (Transvaal and Orange Free State) result in the Second Boer War The British Takeover Britain tried to anglicize them by making official language English
Mines and Works Act (1911) limited black workers to menial work, Native Land Act (1913) set 7% of South Africa aside for black people and banned them from buying lands elsewhere, no right to vote
Throughout the 20th century, conditions worsened until 1994 when the ANC (African National Congress) first came to power following the end of Apartheid The Second Boer War Boer’s declared war and first attacked the British at Natal and Cape Colony
Introduced Guerilla Warfare
used to conduct raids against British infrastructure
Jameson Raid
British Response:
“Scorched earth” policy. Brits burned Boer farms, crops, and homes, took citizens to refugee camps, and poisoned wells
Concentration camps, originally used to house South African families, became "refugee camps" with awful conditions The End of the Boer Wars 1902: The Treaty of Vereeniging was signed that ended the war
By 1907 British colonies in South Africa produced one third of the world’s gold production
South Africa Act of 1909 declared Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal and Orange Free State as the Union of South Africa, Union of South Africa put under British dominion with home rule for the Boers http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/empires/images/0090.jpg http://www.worldstatesmen.org/za-bsac.gif Egypt The Suez Canal With the support of the French, the canal was built 1869
Opposition to the canal feared that the British would become too dependent on a canal that was vulnerable
55% belonged to the French, 45% to Egypt
As long as British merchants could operate freely, Britain had no interest in possessing Egypt Egyptian Government and Finance Under new Egyptian ruler Ismail, the country’s debt rose due to his attempts to modernize
By 1875 they were in 46 million pounds of debt
Prime Minister Disraeli learned that Egyptian shares of the canal were for sale
Failure to pay the army resulted in a mutiny to overthrow Ismail in June 1879
A weaker ruler, Tefwik, stepped up and replaced his Prime Minister with Mahmoud Pasha Sami, a nationalist leader English and French Involvement “Anglo-French Joint Note”
Britain and France sent small naval squadrons to protect their interests in May 1882, but it resulted in rioting
British government calls for international support in an invasion of Egypt, but they were forced to act alone The British Invasion of Egypt Gladstone sends in troops and defeats the Egyptian army, then attempts to withdraw the troops immediately after reinstating the king
The government was in no position to maintain order, so Britain annexed Egypt
The British invasion ignited the revolution of Sudan
General Gordon
“Avenge Gordon” becomes the cry for imperial expansion 20th Century Imperialism in Egypt In 1922 Britain granted Egypt limited independence, leaving the country in control of Egyptian defense and the Suez Canal
From 1923-1937 the British were willing to give certain liberties to the Egyptians, just not the ones they had hoped for
The Four Reserved Points
In 1923 a constitution was created by the National Assembly and Egypt officially became parliamentary monarchy
In January of 1924 British Imperialism “officially” came to an end with a general election Nasser and Imperialism Colonel Nasser came to power in 1952 as part of an army coup to overthrow the corrupt puppet of British imperialism King Farouk
The cover for the takeover of the Suez Canal was the invasion of Sinai by Israel
In Britain the Labor Movement mobilized rallies in Trafalgar Square in protest of the invasion, abroad Arab states cut off ties with Britain
The US and Russia demanded withdrawal
After six weeks the Israeli, British, and French troops were pulled out, and Prime Minister Eden ended up resigning
Nasser paraded in the streets as a nation free from imperialism http://www.emersonkent.com/images/egypt_1910.jpg Reaction to British Imperialism in Britain "The sun never sets on the British Empire" Most Europeans saw Africans as victims or savages, West as a savior
religion, government, changing/conforming culture
Winning and losing political control in colonial settings
People took pride in winning new land and “saving” people
Africa seen as both dangerous and promising Sources http://journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S0010417500015474
http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.lib.utexas.edu/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX2458802981&v=2.1&u=txshracd2598&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w Questions 1) Did British imperialism effectively modernize Africa or did it create cultural and social issues that are still present today?

2) To what extent did imperialism in Africa delay war among European nations?
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