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Five Core Components of Reading Strategies

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amanda stempihar

on 21 May 2015

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Transcript of Five Core Components of Reading Strategies

Five Core Components of Reading Strategies
Core Areas determined by
National Reading Panel
Phonological Awareness
Fluency
Phonics
Comprehension
Vocabulary
The awareness
of sounds spoken
in speech.
Fluency is the ability
to read a text accurately, quickly, and with expression. Fluency is the bridge between word recognition and comprehension.
Phonics is a
method for teaching reading and writing of the English language by developing learners' phonemic awareness—the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate phonemes—in order to teach the correspondence between these sounds and the spelling patterns (graphemes) that represent
them.
Types of Understanding:
Topic
Fact
Inference
Experience/Evaluation
Vocabulary
A developed set of word
meanings and a fundamental
tool for communication and acquiring knowledge.
Emergent Literacy
Concepts of Print:

Basic conventions, or common understandings that surround how books are printed and how we read them.
Components/Steps:

1. Holding a book so that the spine is at our left.
2. When we read print, we start from the left and progress to the right.
3. Begin reading at the uppermost line and proceed downward.
4. Understanding that the letters and words convey messages.
5. Understanding that white spaces between letter clusters mark the boundaries between words.
6. Concept that a word is represented by the marks within the spaces
Assessments:


Informal Checklist:
Ask student to show you the front of the book, place book in front of student in a non-traditional way.
Ask student where to begin reading, after opening to any page containing a picture and at least two lines.
Ask student to show you one word.
Ask student to show you one letter
Concept of Story: Examines student's knowledge of how stories work in order. Specifically is a narrative comprehension assessment from wordless picture books that consists of three parts: a "picture walk", story retelling, and prompted comprehension. This assessment's purpose is to observe familiarity with books, literate language, and story construction in order to have a sense of skills that precede being able to read with comprehension. This evaluation monitors and evaluates five behaviors of:
Book Handling Skills
Engagement
Picture Comments
Storytelling Comments
Comprehension Strategies
Emergent Storybook Reading: Sulzby's Emergent Storybook Reading Scale (1985). Divides student knowledge of how books work and approach to storybook reading into nine stages. Purpose is to observe developmental stage student is in, and provides direction of instruction into next stages. Those nine stages are condensed into seven, and include:

Picture-Governed Attempts: Print-Governed Attempts:
1. Labeling and Commenting 5. Print Awareness
2. Following the Action 6. Aspectual Reading
3. Dialogue Storytelling 7. Text-Governed Reading
4. Monologue Storytelling

Alphabet Recognition:

Learning of Letter Names
Components:

English Language is alphabetic in nature.
Fluent readers recognize words through identification of component letters, not whole units.
A consistent, base reference for instruction
Process occurs at unconcious level.
Assessments:


Details to Address:
Order Letters are Presented: Random
Formatting: Grid Format, Single Sheet of Paper; Use a blank sheet as a placeholder for each row of letters
Use of Capital Letters vs. Lower-Case Letters: Random arrangment of letters on the grid should include randomized appearance of both forms of letters
Font: Plain and free of serifs
Address components of alphabetic principle in a one-page, grid format that displays all of the letters in upper-case and lower-case format. This is a method of recording student responses, and can be used over time to measure growth in alphabetic recognition.
Components:

Are the building blocks of our spoken language
Auditory in nature
Is a prerequisite to successful phonics and spelling instruction
An element of phonological awareness, whi includes larger units of sound such as rhymes, syllables, and word duration
Should develop pre-kindergarten
Insight as an ordered set of sounds
Use "sound"; not technical terms with students
Assessments:


Phonemic Awareness:

The smallest sounds that comprise spoken words
Details to Address:
Order Letters are Presented: Random
Formatting: Grid Format, Single Sheet of Paper; Use a blank sheet as a placeholder for each row of letters
Use of Capital Letters vs. Lower-Case Letters: Random arrangment of letters on the grid should include randomized appearance of both forms of letters
Font: Plain and free of serifs
Address components of alphabetic principle in a one-page, grid format that displays all of the letters in upper-case and lower-case format. This is a method of recording student responses, and can be used over time to measure growth in alphabetic recognition.
Informal Inventory:
Used over time to monitor progress
Oral tasks, with game-like feel
Intermittent Administration
Mastery determined by fulfilling at least five items within performance description of each task
Tasks assessed include: rhymes, phoneme isolation, phoneme identify, phoneme categorization, blending, phoneme addition, phoneme deletion, phoneme substitution, phoneme segmentation.
Dictation for Phonological Awareness
Adaptation of Hearing Sounds in Words, from Observation Survey
Measures phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and print concepts
Useful to supplement "pure" phonological awareness tests
Efficient screening tool as it may be administered individually or within a group setting
Apprpriate to administer when student is experiencing difficulties hearing sounds in words
DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills):
Measures ability to segment three and four phoneme words into individual sounds and produce an initial sound of an orally produced word
Specific sub-tests that assess phonological awareness include Initial Sound Fluency (ISF) and Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF)
Timed, Individual administration
Benchmark Assessments, alternate forms for progress monitoring, and predicitive data for evaluation of scores are all provided for free from DIBELS' website.
CTOPP (Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing):
Subtests consist of tasks that are highly correlated with measures of word recognition such as segmentation and phoneme deletion
Not a pure task of phonological awareness
Based on recent research that indicates such tasks reflect, but not necessarily predict, spelling knowledge; spelling knowledge highly correlated to other measures of word recognition
TOPA-2+ (Test of Phonological Awareness):
Norm-Referenced that may be administered individually or in a group setting
Designed for commercial use due to increased emphasis on phonemic awareness; highly reliable and valid
Word Recognition and Spelling
Sight-Word Knowledge:

Any Word that can be pronounced automatically, without conscious analysis.
Components:

Use target lists such as Dolce or Fry words
Include high frequency words and individualized low frequency words
Older students should learn Essential Words
Assessments:


Sight Word Inventory:
Leveled Inventory of sight words mastered
Progress through levels
TOWRE (Test of Word Reading Efficiency)
Sight Word Efficiency Task specifically assesses level of sight word knowledge
Normed lists
Phonics:

Ability to use letter-sound correspondences to derive the pronunciation of words.
Components:

Phonic application skills requires students to produce pronunciations
Assessments:


Informal Phonics Inventory
Convenient Assessment given in two parts: first as a screener to determine instructional focus areas, and then as a progress monitoring phone
Three subtests that consist of single or two-letter sound pronunciations, final consenant blends, and short vowels in CVC words
Monitors specific skill acquisition
Z Test
Subjective, advanced phonics assessment that targets student ability to make analogies to known words based on familiar rimes
Purpose is to progress monitor progression through decoding skills
Components:

Emergent Spelling - initial attempts at writing, which start as non-alphabetic scribbles, and develop based on emergent analysis of words; initial and final consonants
Letter Name - Alphabetic Spelling: when students begin to incorporate vowels into spelling patterns; generally develops around 1st grade.
Within Word Pattern Spelling - learning of patterns that occur in written words; consistently spell words with short vowels correctly; begins to show sensitivity to patterns in words; distinctions between long and short vowels; use long-vowel markers
Syllables and Affixes Spelling - knowledge of how syllables fit together; emerging of double consonents; ready for multisyllabic words; represents initial use of morphological knowledge; develops between 3rd - 5th grade
Derivational Relations Spelling - learning to use semantic relationships between words
Assessments:


Spelling:

Knowledge of Orthographic Patterns
Qualitative Spelling Checklist:
Checklist is used to examine students' uncorrected writing and to locate their appropriate stages of spelling development.
Three gradations within each stage - early, middle, and late
Check where certain features are observed in students' spelling, and check corresponding stage of development.
Strategies:


Predictable Books:
Use Reading Recovery Levels to guide selection of book; Predictability offers success and morale to students who have not experienced such success in reading
Use patterns to teach directionality and finger pointing while reading
Use words from predictable book for word cards and word sorts
Ask student to show you one letter
Work with less predictable books in progression and development
Exposure to Non-Predictable Books:
Used for comprehension
Exposure to vocabulary and comprehension skills needed for more mature texts
Interactive reading session to facilitate questions and discussions
Use emergent reading level to select exposure texts
Strategies:


Nursery Rhymes
Choral Reading
Memorized
Prediction Strategies
Develops print concepts and writing
Picture Sorting:
By sound
By letter
Oddity Tasks:
"Doesn't Belong" recognition
Stretch Sounding:
Identify when new phoneme changes
Invented Spelling
Attach letters to sounds
Tongue Twisters
Repeat in regular fashion
Repeat in onset and rhyme
Adding Sounds
Add and subtract common rime sounds
Deletion
Delete letters from words to create new words
Strategies:


Alphabet Books:
Repeat words representing letter sounds
Generate own words using letter sounds
Alliterative play
Clear letter-sound correspondance
Alphabet Work
Mastery of Alphabet Song
Pick out letters from alphabet song
Teach letter individually
Word Work

Test of Knowledge of Onsets
Consists of three sub-tests: initial two-letter consonent blends, initial consonant digraphs, single initial consonants
Targeted assessment of onsets ordered hardest to easiest.
Specifically identifies mastery of each type of onset.
Strategies:


Word Banks:
Keep words causing trouble in a "bank"; students may keep practicing personal banks and eachother's banks
"Retire" words when they are mastered; Growing number of retired words are motivation
Strategies:


Synthetic Phonics:
Direct Instruction of individual letter-sound correspondences in order to blend sounds together
Practiced by reading words in lists, and then in texts
Sounding words out
Compare and Contrast Approach:
Compares new words to already known words
Uses analogies to decode unkown words
Especially useful for decoding polysyllabic words
Can use phonograms from Z-Test
Follow Process: (1.) Identify known words that remeble an uknown word (2.) See what is simlar between the two, (3.) Use what is similar to make a tentative identification of the word, and (4.) Check to make sure that the identified word makes sense in context.
Strategies:


Making Words:
Decoding Activity; Students learn to think about letters in words by manipulating letters in spelling tasks
Word Sorts:
Also a Decoding Activity; Students are given lists of words and aed to sort those words.
Closed Sorts: Students are given categories
Start with this process until ample practice or direct instruction of particular patterns has been provided
Open Sorts: Students are asked to develop their own categories based on own observations of patterns in words
Provide modeling
Fluency
Accuracy:

Reading words without mistakes; students may read with 95% accuracy and still be within the instructional range.
Assessments:


Apply procedures of informal reading inventories.
Automaticity:

Ability to read words without conscious effort; meaningful speed.
Assessments:


Usually assessed using rates of reading.
Prosody:

The ability to read with some inflection; indicator students understand parts of speech in a sentence.
Assessments:


Very difficult to assess consistently due to subjectivitity and agreement.
NAEP Rubric:
Four-Scale Rubric; Establish interrater reliability
Tape-record reading samples to observe growth over time.
Assessments that Measure Overall Fluency:


NAEP Oral Reading Fluency Scale:
Listen to a selection, and then give an overall rating, using the four levels as described and outlined in rubric.
Multidimensional Scale:
More refined than NAEP; Provides a summative quantitative score for multiple dimensions of prosodic reading.
Individual dimensions provide formative information used to guide instruction.
Use scale to increase students' self-awareness of specific aspects of their own reading fluency

Curriculum-Based Measurements:
Uses short passages of about 100 words, which are taken from texts that are used in classes.
After student reads passage, rate and accuracy are assessed, and norms are referenced and compared (Hasbrouck and Tindal's ORF Data Table or AIMSweb norms).
Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS):
Oral Reading Fluency sub-test/task that is administered as early as first grade.
Students are asked to read three passages aloud and is stopped after one minute. The score is calculated as the number of words correct per minute. The median score is then used to determine overall score in order to evaluate if student is "at risk", "low-risk", or "some risk" for reading difficulties.
Three benchmark passages are also administered individually three times per year, and progress-monitored if need be.
Strategies:


Echo Reading:
Teacher reads a section of the text aloud while the students read silently in their own texts and students "echo" back
Passages must be long enough so that students are not simply repeating
Teacher may use think-aloud decoding strategies after echo-reading for decoding difficult words.
Repeated Readings:
Students read the same text repeatedly, until a desired level of fluency is attained
Tape Reading:
Student can read along with tape recording until he or she can read the story comfortably and fluently
Monitor that students are responsible for reading and avoid simple, listening opportunities.
Partner Reading
Read stories with a partner
Negotiate terms of turn-taking; One partner reads, while the other monitors and helps
Choral Reading
Simultaneous reading of passages
Instructor can "phase" themselves out
Paired Reading
Capable reader words one-to-one with a struggling reader
Tutor and struggling reader choose book together
Begin by reading in unison, until struggling reader wants to read solo
Plays, Reader's Theater, and Famous Speeches:
Engages students in reading practice
Read text parts repeatedly, until they reach a desired level of fluency
Oral Recitation
Direct Teaching Phase and a Mastery Phase
Buddy Reading
Pair older, struggling reader with a younger reader to practice their own reading in a natural setting
Leads tutor to greater awareness of the processes involved in learning to read
Closed-Captioned Television
Comprhension
Assessments:


Questions:
Traditional, flexible (administered in formal fashion or facilitated as a class discussion), focused
Types include literal, inferential, and critical
Questions must be Reading-Dependent, or have the need to read a selection in order to answer a particular comprehension question, despite having no background knowledge
Questions should be readable, or kept as simple as possible so as not to be harder to comprehend than the reading selection itself
Cloze Assessments:
Involves deleting words from a prose selection and asking students to replace those words on the basis of the remaining context
Advantages include administration in a group or individual setting, does not require comprehension questions, highly correlate with more conventional methods of assessing comprehension
Limitations include strange formatting that can be confusing, spelling and fine-motor issues may significantly impact scores, only assesses surface level comprehension
Maze:
Multiple choice variation of cloze tasks
Advantages include easy administration, administration in group or individual setting, formatting options
Evidence indicates that maze tests are sensitive to the reading comprehension development of novice readers and place minimal demand on working memory, spelling, and fine-motor development
Defined as the ability to read text, process it and understand its meaning. An individual's ability to comprehend text is influenced by their traits and skills, one of which is the ability to make inferences.
Purposes for assessing comprehension include gauging the degree to which a student has comprehended a particular selection and to estimate general level of proficiency.
Oral Retellings:
The degree of detail provided and general coherence when student retells the content of a reading selection, orally
A checklist may be used in order to gauge key points referenced within retelling
Advantages include being more naturalistic, aviods pitfalls of questioning, gauging how well student internalized the content of a selection, and allows for observation of thought processes, cultural influences, and what student values as important details
Retells demonstrate consequential validity as they have an assessment purpose, but have an instructional benefit, as well
Limitations include heavy reliance on student's oral expression abilities and subjectivity
Word Lists:
Short-cut to assessing general comprehension abilities by examination of ability to pronounce words in grade-leveled lists
Advantages include convenient administration, high correlation between word-lists and conventional, comprehension assessments
San Diego Quick Assessment - specific exam
Other Comprehension Assessments:
Written Responses
Oral Miscue Analysis
Sentence Verification
Student-Generated Questions
Performance tasks based on selections
Evaluations of student participation
Decoding Issues:


Poorly Developed Strategies:


Students who spend too much time and mental energy figuring out words will struggle with capacity to comprehend.
If student's comprehension improves when listening to a passage, it is evidence of need for direct instruction in decoding skills.
Strong corrletion between knowledge base, including knowledge of word meanings, and ability to comprehend.
Improvements to knowledge-base and vocabulary are gradual and cumulative.
Limited Prior Knowledge and Vocabulary:


Strategies:


Directed Reading Activities
Preteaching Key Vocabulary
Listen-Read-Discuss


Strategies:


Explicit Instruction
Think Alouds
Student-Generating Questions
Reciprocal Questioning
Summary Writing
Graphic-Organizers
Reading Guides
Reciprocal Teaching
Refers to methods proficient readers deliberately do to facilitate their own comprehension
Skills enables readers to use those strategies automatically
Those skills specifically include: answering high-level comprehension questions, generating questions, identifying and organizing ideas, summarizing, applying personal prior-knowledge, and creating mental images
Vocabulary
Conversational:

Words that students learn through everyday conversations with parents, other family members and peers.
Core Academic Vocabulary:

Words that sudent may encounter frequently in their reading and should be able to use in their writing; have an underlying concept for the word/general purpose vocabulary.
Content-Specific Vocabulary:

Words that refer to new concepts in a particular content area that are important for students to learn.
Academic Language:

Words and phrases that indicate logical operations and tasks.

Assessments that Measure Overall Vocabulary:


Vocabulary Skill Levels:
Breadth: refers to the quantity of words for which students may have some level of knowledge.
Depth: refers to how much students know about a word and the dimensions of word learning addressed previously.
Assessment Dimensions (as created by Read, 2000):
Discrete vs. Embedded: Discrete Vocabulary as a separate subtest or isolated set of words distinct from each word's role within a larger construct of comprehension, composition, or conceptual application. Embedded Vocabulary interspersed among the comprehension items, and viewed as part of the comprehension construct.
Selective vs. Comprehensive: Slelective Vulary includes smaller sets of words from which the test sample is drawn, such as testing the vocabulary words from one story. Comprehensive Vocabulary includes words from a larger body of genera,l vocabulary.
Context-Independent–vs. Context-Dependent: Context-Indpendent Vocabulary present items in isolation. Context-Dependent Vocabulary requires the student to apply the word appropriately for the embedded context.

Formal Vocabulary Assessments:
Comprehensive Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Test - Second Edition
Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test - 2000 Edition
Test of Oral and Written Language Scales Listening Comprehension And Oral Expression (TOWL)
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test- III
Informal Formal Vocabulary Assessments:
Anecdotal Records: teachers take notes during class time as they listen for students to use target vocabulary during class discussions. While reading student writing, teachers take notes on students' use or misuse of target vocabulary or word elements such as roots and affixes.
Work Samples: students select samples of their writing at pre-determined times during a grading period. These samples are stored in writing folders, notebooks, or in students' literacy portfolios. Together, teachers and students can examine writing samples at the end of each reporting period to note differences in students' use of words studied. Then, teachers assist students to set reasonable goals for learning vocabulary during the next grading period.
Checklists: Teachers create checklists of vocabulary skills such as a list of root words and affixes they will be teaching. Then, near the middle and again near the end of each grading period, teachers examine student writing using the checklist. They place a check by each of the new roots or affixes students use in their writing. By examining each student's use of the desired vocabulary, teachers are able to plan vocabulary instruction to meet students' needs.
Portfolios: students select samples of their work (writing assignments, quizzes, tests, etc.) and organize them into a portfolio. Using the evidence collected in the portfolio, teachers and students determine if students have met their established goals for that grading period.
Meaning/Oral Vocabulary:

Refers to words that we use in speaking or recognize in listening.
Receptive Vocabulary:

Receptive vocabulary refers to words that a person can comprehend and respond to, even if the person cannot produce those words.
Expressive Vocabulary:

The expressive vocabulary represents those concepts/words that can be communicated through talking, signing, or writing (output).
Literate/Written Vocabulary:

Words grow in this area as written language contains words not normally found within spoken vocabularies.
Strategies:


Marzano's 6 Step Process for Teaching Academic Vocabulary:
Provide a description, explanation, or example of the new term (Include a non-linguistic representation of the term for students with English as a Second Language).
Ask students to restate the description, explanation, or example in their own words.
Ask students to construct a picture, symbol, or graphic representing the word.
Engage students periodically in activities that help them add to their knowledge of the terms in their notebooks.
Periodically ask students to discuss the terms with on another (Allow in native language when appropriate).
Involve students periodically in games that allow them to play with terms.
Instructional Practices for Teaching Vocabulary:
Frayer Models - A graphic organizer helps students to learn new vocabulary by not only defining the term in their own words, but contextualizing it through authentic examples and visual representation.
Graffitti Vocabulary - Graffiti Criteria includes vocabulary word is drawn using bubble letters, a description of term using own words is provided, at least 3 images drawn representing the term, and alll white space must be colored in
Vocabulary Cartoons
Anchor Charts
Making Meaning - Identifying key words and creating KWL charts/conversations
Essential Prefixes/Root Words/Word Parts Graphic Organizer
Word Splash
Word Sorts
Word Walls
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