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How Safe Are Vitamins and Minerals During Pregnancy

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Ahmad Saad

on 10 March 2014

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Transcript of How Safe Are Vitamins and Minerals During Pregnancy

Our Aim
To raise awareness about the risks of over-utilization of multivitamins by pregnant women.
To guide pregnant women towards healthier and safer pregnancy.
Objectives
Prenatal vitamins in Pregnancy
As the mother experiences the new life is stirring inside, when a tiny heartbeat is heard for the very first time, and the overwhelming happiness she starts wondering what can she do for her baby to protect it and nourish it, and most of the women start taking multivitamins immediately.
But what if the mother is actually hurting her baby??
More about Vitamins & Minerals.
Toxicity and deficiency side effects of
common vitamins and minerals.
Overview on Prenatal multivitamin use.
Is a healthy diet enough for the nourishment
of your baby?
Methodology, Results, Conclusion.
Take away advice!

Your body needs larger amounts of the essential minerals, such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium to grow and stay healthy.
Other minerals like chromium, copper, iodine, iron, selenium, and zinc are called trace minerals because you only need very small amounts of them each day.
Vitamins fall into two categories: fat soluble and water soluble. The fat-soluble vitamins ( A, D, E, and K) dissolve in fat and can be stored in your body. Once they have been stored in tissues in the body, they tend to remain there. This means that if a person takes in too much of a fat soluble vitamin, over time they can have too much of that vitamin present in their body, a potentially dangerous condition called hypervitaminosis. While water-soluble vitamins ( C and the B-complex vitamins ) can't be stored in the body and are excreted fast, but toxicity could still occur.

Minerals are inorganic elements that come from the soil and water and are absorbed by plants or eaten by animals.
Toxicity vs. Deficiency
Deficiency Toxicity
Vitamin A Causes fetal and infant growth retardation

Only preformed retinol can cause acute toxicity. Disrupt cephalic neural cell activity, CNS malformation and teratogenicity. Carotenoids from foods are not toxic, because the efficiency of absorption falls as carotenoid intake increases
Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)
Neural tube defect.
Vitamin C
Impair mental development.
May raise the risk of preterm birth.
Vitamin D
May lead to rickets or osteopenia among newborn infants.
Mental retardation and facial deformities.
Vitamin E
Higher risk of suffering from asthma, both in the utero and postpartum period and hemolytic anemia.
Increases the risk of congenital heart defects.
Calcium
High blood pressure in the newborn.
Decrease in bone mineral density of the fetus.

Decreased fetal weight and retarded skeletal and dental calcification.
Sodium
Low birth weight.
Poor neurological function in early adolescence.

Giving birth 10 weeks early due to severe pre-eclampsia.
Potassium
Abnormal heart rhythms and abnormal glucose responses.
Anencephaly, cleft lip and palate, congenital physical anomaly and slow growth after birth.
Iron
Risk for anemia later in infancy.
Increased risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight.

Selenium
May be linked to first-trimester miscarriages and recurrent miscarriages.
Could lead to miscarriage or fetus’s bilateral club-foot
My mom eats a healthy nutritious diet full of Vitamins and minerals.
Did you know that during the first trimester there's no need for extra calories or extra food intake?
A pregnant women can get all the nutrients she needs from a healthy diet during the first trimester.
My mom does that plus prenatal vitamins! I'm overwhelmed, and I don't need all that yet!
According to the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), "pregnant women should have a diet that consists of variety of foods including proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and fats." From these they should get the right nutrients and vitamins for pregnancy health and their baby’s development. Multivitamins could be useful in some cases but they aren’t supplements that should be taken by all pregnant women, it must be considered on individual basis. More may not be better!!
Vitamins & Minerals.
Methodology
Survey was distributed manually to 200 women throughout Dubai, Sharjah, and Abu Dhabi and it covered the education level, women’s awareness and knowledge about multivitamins and their toxicity, and the contribution of pharmacists in counseling about these supplements. We had 100% respondents. The results were analyzed by using IBM SPSS program.
Results
Survey analysis showed that 51.5% of the sample was unaware of the risk of toxicity if they exceed the RDA amounts of vitamins and minerals. The p value for this test was 0.005 which is <0.05 (percent of those who were unaware about toxicity was significant). Also Results have shown that with alot of mothers (about 59.5 %) weren't counseled by the pharmacist about vitamins and minerals they are buying. The p value for this test was also <0.05 (percent of those who were not counseled was significant).
Conclusion
Pregnant women or those who are planning to get pregnant should be more aware about the vitamins and minerals they take. In the case of all dietary supplements, the decision to take them should not be taken lightly. Pregnant women should only take vitamin supplements on a health care provider’s recommendation. And pharmacist should have a role in advising patients and counseling them about their multivitamins and minerals. Finally, pregnant women who are experiencing severe vomiting or women with special cases, such as those with diabetes or anemia, might need additional supplementation to meet their daily nutritional requirements.
Take Away Advice!
• Follow a healthy diet that includes all the essential vitamins and minerals.
• Multivitamin supplement isn’t for everyone, so always ask your Doctor or Pharmacist before buying any supplement.
• If you were prescribed multivitamins, make sure to take the prenatal not the ordinary supplement, and preferably without vitamin A. (The risk of birth defects owing to synthetic vitamin A analogs has already been documented in humans, and recently the ingestion of excess vitamin A)
• Avoid taking several different supplements, but rather take one multivitamin that includes a variety of needed nutrients in one dose.
• Pharmacists should ask women in the child-bearing age buying
supplements if it was for pregnancy or not and to give more information
and guidance.


Thank you !!
Any Questions?

References
• Jellin JM, Gregory PJ, Batz F, Hitchens, K, et al. Pharmacist’s Letter/Prescriber’s Letter Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. 4th ed. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty; 2002:pg 735, 1274, 1281, 1287 and 1379.
• Williams Obstetrics Twenty-Second Ed. Cunningham, F. Gary, et al Ch 8.
• http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/nutritional_disorders/vitamin_deficiency_dependency_and_toxicity/overview_of_vitamins.html last visited on 20 February 2014.


How Safe Are Vitamins and Minerals During Pregnancy?
University Of Sharjah
College Of Pharmacy
Presented by: Noor Nader
Supervised by: Dr. Manal Al Sharawy
During pregnancy, the fetus is very vulnerable to toxins in the uterine environment. Substances such as certain vitamins may be completely harmless to the mother, but could have disastrous effects on the development of the fetus. These kinds of birth defects can be prevented when the mother knows the potential danger of the specific vitamins and how dangerous levels of these vitamins could be avoided
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