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Reform: Education and Culture
Transcript of Reform: Education and Culture
HIST 4530- Seminar Presentation
By: Melissa Manserra
Agenda for Presentation
- A General Understanding of Reform
- The Social Purity Movement
- Urban Reform
- Finance and Politics
- Social Work
- Relgion and Regeneration
3. Class Activity
4. Reflection Questions
- 1870's- 1920: transitional decades
- cities and businesses grew, technical sophistication, new theories, new ineventions= The World Sped Up.
- The Exhibition and New Industry
- Homogeneity= Bourgeois Hegemony
- Becoming Modern vs. Being Modern
- Defining hierarchies of social existence
A General Understanding of Reform
- Defining the nation in relation to the US
- "Regenerate" society and the human soul
- Social Purity: powerful and informal coalition for the moral regeneration of the state, civil society, the family, and the individual
- Main target: Social Morality
- Social Purity vs. The Social Gospel
- Sunday Activities
- The Conservation Commission
- Where is the government?
- Class, Race, Gender
- Symbolism: "Light"
The Social Purity Movement
- 1881- 1921: urban population grew from 1.1- 4.3 million
- Demographic Revolution
- Urban Reformers (post 1900): Thomas Adams
- Clifford Sifton: suburban movement is not solution
- mounting costs and tax burden
- Municipal Government
- Bureaucratic Methods and the new middle class
- Rural myth of the "evil city"
- Urban Reform: subverting individualistic ethos OR solidify class domination of city life
Religion and Regeneration
- 1893: REGENERATION!
- Religious crisis: Darwinian science and criticism of Bible
- Man's eternal salvation vs. social salvation
- Modernist Theology---> Secularization
- The Social Gospel
- The attack on religious beliefs by Karl Marx
- The search for a society where Christianity can be 'lived'
Finance and Politics
Moral Reform in English Canada
- The relationship between religion and science
- The WCTU and Salvation Army
- Sex Education
- James Kay: “criminal acts may be statistically classed…but the number of those affected with the moral leprosy of vice cannot be exhibited with mathematical precision. Sensuality has no record”.
Race Purity, Sexual Purity, and Immigration Policy
- THE Social Evil= Prostitution
- Fear of becoming a 'fallen city'
- The White Slavery Panic (1911)
- Clean souls or white bodies?
- The Anglo-Saxon Race: "they are more that any other people a product of civilization and discipline"
The City as a Moral Problem
- William Woodsworth: "Crime, immorality, disease, and misery vary almost directly as the size of the plot, the breadth of the street and the number of parks"
- Back to the country?
- Making the city a healthier place to live
- Settlement Housing
- Women and domestic science
- Religiously based city missions
- Benefits: Canadian Capitalism & Social Regulation
The Rise of Civic Populism
- essential services should be supplied by the public
- competitions and contracts were inneffective
- Civic populism
- Publicly or Privately controlled?
- civic populists exploit corporate arrogance
- Bold experiments: " I fear the spirit of mischief is Toronto's curse."
The Search for an Ideal
Extra- Curricular Life
The Establishment of the PhD in Toronto
- Comparisons to the country south of the border...again
- Reflect: Why do you think a large number of Canadians were attracted to American schools?
- looking at Germany for inspiration (1870s)
- 1882: senate report on income
- production of specialists= national growth
- growing need for the PhD
Winter Fun in Toronto!
- Toronto's natural landscape
- Clubs and Associations
- Tobagganing, hockey, skating, cricket, curling
- Mail order catalogue
- Heading North to Cottage Country
- puchasing land for a 'getaway'
- fishing, canoeing, rowing, swimming, board games, reading
- Breaking family patterns
- remove child from home
- prevent offspring
- Children as 'human beings'
- Nursery School
- the 'Blatz Baby'
- A perfect Christian sociology?
- W.C Good: "All true reformers must at heart by religious"
- Christian action over Christian thought
- Making the church 'modern'
Richard Allen- “The Social Passion- Religion and Social Reform in Canada 1914-1928”
- the history of ideas that emerged together with the movements of religion and social reform in Canada
- relating the religious and ethical demands of Christian tradition to the conditions of human society
- the drama of the Social Gospel movement
Group 1: "The Rise of the Social Gospel"
Group 2: "The Embattled Years"
Group 3: "A Complete Social Reconstruction"
Group 4: "The New Christianity"
Group 5: "Labor Churches"
Group 6: "The Social Gospel and Church Union"
Group 7: "The Prohibitin Crisis"
Group 8: "The Social Gospel and the
Crisis in Progressivism"
*Summarize the chapter by explaining the reform movement and its significance
“ The extent of change in the late Victorian western world was staggering. None of it materialized abruptly out of thin air, nor was there any dramatic turning-point that marked the arrival of modernity, but by the closing years of the century, even those most insulated from overt effects and most determined to resist intrusions could sense that Western society was shifting its axis.”
“Becoming Modern in Toronto: The
Industrial Exhibition and the Shaping of Late
The Evolution of the Board of Control
The Development of Toronto
Cover of the Brantford Red Bird Bicycle Catalogue, 1898, from Glen Norcliffe, The Ride to Modernity: The Bicycle in Canada, 1869-1900 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001), p. 146. Glen Norcliff personal collection
- Controlling the Commettees
- loose financial practices
- city expenditures exceeded approproations by 90 000 in 1876
- William Beatty
- 1895 City Council approves board of administration
- Corruption in services of city council
- Introduction of the board of control: 'a capital piece of municipal machinery'
- Executive responsibility
- must have legislature approval to act
- members of executive are members of legislature
- staring into the abyss!- social and moral chaos?
- the search for a new world that would explain the nature of man
- Intellectual debate on the essential nature of education
- Reflection Question: Why do you think the search for an ideal became so important to Torontonians at the turn of the century?
- "A Path not Strewn with Roses"- Anne Rochon Ford
- all eyes on U of T
- confusing paradox for women
- Henrietta Charles and Eliza Balmer
- gaining admission into University College
- Toronto Women's Suffrage Society
- October 2, 1884
- Co-ed Life and Sisterhood
- Acamdemic excellence
- Undergrad disciplines in the 20th Century
- A Women's Gym: Massey Memorial Hall (Hart House)
- Keith Walden- "Hazes, Hustles, Scraps, and Stunts: Initiations at the University of Toronto (1880-1925)"
- students' collective experience
- initiations for male and female students
- What do initiations teach us?
- "the problem of youth"
- the acceptance and resistance of an industrial capitalist society
(Cathy James- "Not Merely for the Sake of an Evening's Entertainment")
- 1910-1930: Community Theatre
- Theatre played a large role is settlement housing. Why?
- A house of dreams
- Assimilating immigrants
- Empowering, 'best selves'
- dominant gender roles & attitudes
- cooperative unified community & leadership
Educational uses of theatre
- Jocelyn Mother Raymond- "The Nursery World of Dr. Blatz
- Improving the public mood: where to begin?
- William Blatz- interpreter of child psychology
- St. George’s School for Child Study of Toronto.
- The "feeble-minded"
A Novel in an Hour
“The drama of the social gospel in Canada between 1914-1928 was one of high hopes, notable successes, intense encounters, conflicts (both soul and society), disillusionments, and self-deceptions. Its story was one of consequence for some of the deepest issues of self and society, as well as a vital part of the crucial period of transition in Canadian history”- Richard Allen (pg. 5).
" The White Ribbon"- A poem by the WCTU
Pure and unsullied as new driven snow,
Fair with the whiteness of the lily gleams
O'er all the earth like sunshine's rarest beams,
The spotless honour of our little bow...
Go, ribbon white! entwine the world around,
Carry the message over the land and sea.
Save from the drink all those within its snares,
Guide each aright who now the emblem bears. (Valverde, 59)
Hart House, early 1900s
(courtesy University of Toronto Archives)
From the Toronto Star Weekly, July 1914
Nor’Loch Lodge 1909. Guests enjoying ‘wellness’ treatments from the extensive veranda looking over the lake (courtesy Garry Best)
Marsh’s Falls 1910. A picnic beneath the trestle bridge spanning the Oxtongue River at Marsh’s Falls
Back breaking work in opening up the bush for farming in Muskoka; early 1900′s (courtesy Ontario archives)
1. Which area of reform do you feel was most crucial to the 'regeneration' of Toronto?
2. Which area of reform do you believe was most beneficial for Toronto, leading up and in preparation for the Great War?
The vehicle at right is believed to be the first automobile in Toronto, photographed circa 1912. City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 1244, Item 56
St. Lawrence Market http://www.blogto.com/city/2010/12/toronto_of_the_1900s/
Flagpole Painter looking West on Front
- Canadian Labor Demands
Library at University Settlement House, 1920s
- Toronto Public Library
Books for Boys and Girls
title page, 1927- Toronto Public Library