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N4/5 Baroque Music

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Eilidh MacLeod

on 28 March 2017

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Transcript of N4/5 Baroque Music

Baroque Period
1600 - 1750

Important historical Events
1603 – Shakespeare’s Hamlet published
1605 – Guy Fawkes tried unsuccessfully to blow up the houses of parliament
1606-Guy Fawkes and his co-plotters are executed by hanging drawing and quartering
1636 – Harvard University founded
1678 – Antonio Vivaldi is born
1680 – Antonio Stradavaria opens his shop in Cremona (Italy)
1685 – J.S. Bach is born in Germany
1685 – G.F. Handel is born
1710– Bartolommeo Cristofiori builds the first piano
1723 – Vivaldi composes The 4 Seasons
1742– Handel’s Messiah is premiered

Some Famous Non-musical faces
Sir Issac Newton (1642-1727) English Scientist - discovered gravity and calculus

Shakespeare (1564-1616)
English playwright

Galileo (1564-1642)
Italian Astronomer and scientist

The 2 most famous composers
Possibly the two most famous composers of time were Bach and Handel, who were both born in the same year (1685) and it is them who bring the Baroque Period to a close.

The Baroque Period
The word BAROQUE simply means elaborate and very decorated and refers to a period of artistic style originating in Rome – Italy in 1600 and then spreading to Europe throughout the 17th and 18th Centuries.

It was first used to describe a style of architecture used in churches and palaces at this time which was very elaborate and decorative, but is now used to describe all the arts and music of this time.

Place of Versailles
France
St Paul's Cathedral
London
Holloyrood Palace
Edinburgh
The Baroque Orchestra
The orchestra as we think of it today began in the Baroque Period.

The Orchestra was small with usually a maximum of 30 players.

The Strings
By 1700 it had become established that the STRING family would provide the basis of the orchestra.

The Brass
In the BRASS family the trumpet was used most frequently (nearly always with the TIMPANI as well) while the horn was a rare addition.

All BRASS instruments were natural instruments (they had no valves) In order to play melodies at all they had to be played in their highest register giving a brilliant tone always associated with the Baroque Orchestra.

The Woodwind
The most frequently used WOODWIND instruments were oboe and bassoon with the flute and recorder making occasional appearances.

Keyboard Instruments
The Baroque the orchestra always contained a KEYBOARD instrument (usually harpsichord and sometimes organ) playing chords in the background and filling out the harmonies.

Baroque composers also wrote many pieces for solo organ and harpsichord

Harpsichord
Organ
Concerto
Work for solo instrument and orchestra. Normally in 3 movements.

Here is an example of a harpsichord concerto.
Canon
Strict imitation. Once one part starts to play or sing a melody, another part enters shortly afterwards with exactly the same melody.
Ground Bass
A theme in the bass which is repeated many times while the upper parts are varied
Opera
OPERA was invented in the Baroque era. In the years around 1600 a group of noblemen, poets and composers in Florence tried to recreate the way the Ancient Greeks had performed their dramas. They mistakenly thought they had been sung throughout with accompanying instruments and so, through a mistake OPERA was born.

An OPERA
– A drama set to music, acted and sung by SOLOISTS and CHORUS and accompanied by an ORCHESTRA

Aria
A song from an opera
Melisma
Using more than one note per syllable
Syllabic
Using one note per syllable
Listen to this example.

The verse is sung Syllabic then the chorus is melismatic.
Full transcript