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Ebola

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Cristina Parra

on 15 November 2013

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Transcript of Ebola

Ebola - Chain of Infection
Portal of Entry
The Ebola virus is spread through close personal contact with someone/something's bodily fluids that is infected with Ebola.
Sources
http://www.brettrussell.com/personal/ebola.html
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/ebola/qa.htm
https://www.bcm.edu/departments/molecular-virology-and-microbiology/ebola
Infectious Agent
Filo virus named after a river in Zaire (where it was first discovered). This filo virus is usually fatal, and it affects monkeys, apes and humans.
Ebola viruses cause Ebola hemorrhagic fever
Reservoir
Ebola's natural reservoir is still unknown to this day. However researchers believe that the virus is zoonotic which means it is animal-borne, with the 4 out of 5 subtypes of Ebola occurring in an animal host native to Africa.
Example
In previous outbreaks, infection has occurred among hospital care workers or family members who are caring for an ill or deceased person infected with the virus.
Example
The last known strain of Ebola, was discovered in 1994 when a Swiss female researcher performing a necropsy on a dead chimpanzee from the Tai Forest, accidentally infected herself.
Symptoms
All forms of hemorrhagic fever start with fever and muscle aches.
Depending on the virus disease can progress until the patient becomes very ill with respiratory problems, severe bleeding, kidney problems, and shock.
With Ebola, victims develop fever, chills, headaches, muscle aches, and loss of appetite.
After this stage, you just bleed from every orifice.
Prevention
Don't go to a country where there has been an outbreak or history of outbreaks.
If you do you should avoid bodily fluids of infected people (blood, feces, urine, vomit, sweat, etc.)
If an infected person has respiratory problems face shields or surgical masks and eye protection should be worn to prevent droplet contact.
Treatment
There is no treatment for Ebola or a vaccine to help prevent the virus.
Treatment for Ebola is supportive; patients are only treated according to their symptoms.
Heparin (a drug used to thin the blood) has been used to try to prevent DIC (pathological activation of blood clotting), but there has been no success.
Most of the time, it is a waiting game to see if the person infected survives.
Portal of Exit
Close person contact with someone/something infected by the virus
Contact with bodily fluids of someone/something infected by Ebola
Example
In Africa reusing needles is not an uncommon practice in developing countries, such as Zaire, Gabon, and Sudan, where the health care system is significantly under financed.
Mode of Transmission
The virus is transmitted though direct contact with blood or other bodily fluids of infected people/animals
Close contact with a deceased Ebola-infected body
Susceptible Host
The only susceptible hosts for Ebola are humans and primates.
Example
Ebola virus antibodies were found in three species of tropical fruit bats. This indicates that it is possible that Ebola infected bats could survive and transmit the virus to primates through close contact with them
Direct or Indirect?
Direct. Because someone can only become infected through close personal contact with someone/something that is already infected by the Ebola virus.
Example
Outbreaks in the past have only affected humans and primates. The three species of bats that transmit the virus have never become infected.
Researchers observing a fruit bat that may transmit Ebola.
Electron micrograph of Ebola Zaire virus
Full transcript