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Sport textile

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Duccio Nottiani

on 8 January 2015

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Transcript of Sport textile


3.4% reduction in drag
1.9% reduction in drag
Speedo LZR Racer Elite 2
6% reduction in skin friction drag

The latest technologies surrounding lightweight racing swimsuits are aimed at:
reducing drag in water
creating fabrics that cling to the body and repel water
compressing muscles and moulding the shape of the body
bonding fabric seams together while allowing stretch
replicating a shark's skin to reduce drag and increase speed

Better shape retention with XTRA LIFE LYCRA®:
Up to ten times more chlorine resistant than unprotected swim fabrics and more resistant to sunscreen than ordinary elastane suits
Superior fit:
Endurance 10 fabrics stretch in multiple direction offering a great freedom of movement, for a comfortable fit
Soft touch:
smooth and silky
soft-touch fabrics
Quick drying

Longer-lasting fabrics
: twenty times more fade resistant than conventional elastane swimwear; blend of PBT and polyester fibers that resists snagging and fading longer than any other swim material
Chlorine resistant
: it won't degrade in the swimming pool even after daily swim sessions
Quick drying
: designed to absorb less moisture so it dries faster after your workout
The suits launched by Speedo in 2000 were approved for the Olympics, where they helped win 83% of the medals.
By the next Olympic games, similar suits had been developed by Try Sport, but were not approved by the FINA.
:Nylon, favoured for strength, elasticity and ease of dyeing. Suitable as a swimwear fabric because of its water repellency and quick drying properties.
: DuPont introduced the elastomeric fiber, known as
); they revolutioned swimwear with enhanced lightweight and great adherence to the body

One of the major applications for
new man-made polymer was swimwear..

: polyester textured yarns were realized and branded
. Its great success was in mid '70s for its aesthetic properties, quick drying and resistance to crease and wear.
technology revolutionized swimwear creating a membrane both breathable and waterproof.
-treated fabrics further enhanced water repellency and reduced water drag increasing swimmer performances.
: Harvard Wyss researchers use multi-material 3D printing to fabricate the first biomimetic shark skin
1st century B.C.
: Leather sails used by several population (Celtics, Mediterranean, etc.)

Early 16th century A.D.
: Cotton or reed sails used on Peruvian ships; cotton fibers performed best for their strength and ability to produce a high sett in fabric

Mid 16th century A.D.
: Wool was the earliest conventional textile employed in England

17th-18th century A.D.
: Flax and other bast fibers to weave linen fibres into canvas were used in Scotland but it was difficult to achieve a good cover factor for
efficient wind resistance
Mid 19th century
: racing sails made of Long Staple Cotton Fiber, used for lighter weight and higher performance, but the water absorption capacity made those densely woven fabrics stiff and difficult to handle

: Nylon spinnaker and Polyester sailcloth, started to become prominent and replaced natural fibers in sailmaking industry.

: North Sails introduced 3DL®, a revolutionary sailmaking technology that thermo-molds sails as a unitary membrane on a
full-sized 3-dimensional mold.

The goal was to form a perfectly shaped J/24 headsail in one continuous 3-D piece!
By 1990, J.P. Baudet and Luc Dubois produced the J/24 genoa. For NorthSails, this was the beginning of three-dimensionally laminated sails, or "3DL®."
Kevlar yarns are glued together by Baudet under tension to a sheet of Mylar.
Next, a second piece of Mylar is placed over the top, completing the "sandwich".
The sail is vacuum-bagged together, compressing the two pieces of Mylar "bread" around the Kevlar "meat".
Finally the glue is set off by the application of heat.
The 3-Dimentional shape is achieved through the contour of numerous panels of sailcloth sewn together in a process called "Broadseming".
The sail hold its shape in strong winds and stand up to wear and tear
It is 33% lighter than a "normal" J/24 headsail
3DL sail is faster
It stretches less and has wider effective wind range
Without seams the sail is remarkably smooth, like glass.
Virtual Wind Tunnel
(VWT) is the first (and still the only) computer simulator to accurately model wind flow on downwind sails at 100% scale
3DL580 is a blend of North Flex-Balanced™ Carbon and Technora® yarn
3DL680 is a blended North Flex-Balanced™ Carbon and Aramid yarn
Marathon 480 with a core layer of Aramid and Carbon Fibre yarns surrounded by tough North TF taffeta outer films (available in white or grey)
3DL800 is 100% North Flex Balanced carbon yarn structure which delivers lighter weight, low stretch and optimum performance
3100 B.C.
: Naquada Pots, Egypt. Earliest illustration of boats powered with sails made from animal skins or reed mats

WINDSTOPPER® Soft Shell 3L with DWR finish 85% nylon, 15% elastane


GORE-TEX® Pro 3L, 70d nylon plain-weave face with a nylon mini-ripstop backer and DWR
Shell: Pertex® Quantum® 100%nylon 15d with DWR
Insulation: Eiderdown
Lining: Pertex® Quantum® 20d nylon ripstop with DWR


Shell: WINDSTOPPER® Active 2L, 70d nylon plain-weave
Insulation: PrimaLoft® Gold Down Blend
Lining: Pertex® Quantum® 20d nylon ripstop with DWR


Polartec® Power Dry® High Efficiency fleece (205 g/m2, 88% polyester, 12% elastane)

Phasic™ SV—92% polyester, 8% polypropylene, UPF 50+, 150 g/m². Double knit textile composed of multidimensional
polyester yarns that wick moisture
laterally to dry quickly, plus polypropylene yarns that have
encapsulated into the fibre for long-lasting odour control. The interior fabric is a combination of polyester and polypropylene and slightly lofted for mid-level insulation, while the face is 100% polyester, smooth and durably pill resistant

Mountain Merino Wool - 95% New Zealand Merino wool, 5% elastane
Skis have been used for 2500 years to permit the motion of
people living in countries where the snow was present for several months a year. The first skis were only plank of wood with laces to link the
traditional leather boots used Nordic and Alpine regions.
Stratos EVO (La Sportiva)
Includes the Stratos Liner with 5mm thermo-moldable EVA and a patented lacing system that allows for a custom fit.
100% "3K Twill" carbon fiber shell
Protective zip gaiter in waterproof stretch material
Internal Velcro® closure system for a secure fit
Steel toe fittings are compatible with all Tech-style bindings
Highly durable "75 A" rubber toe and heel inserts
Carbon coated rear fitting
2 forward lean settings

Stratos Cube
Made from 100% Karbon-Kevlar state-of-the-art composite material used in Fomula 1 race cars. Extremely lightweight, incredibly durable, and completely dynamic, the Stratos has come to represent the highest level of ski mountaineering competition as seen on World Cup podiums worldwide.
Carbon Megawatt ski (Blackdiamond)
Formula One 3D Light Sandwich, Pre-preg Carbon Fiber Construction, Ultralight engineered wood core, ABS 5mm Sidewalls, Power Edge,
Stainless SkinLock Clip
1940s first changes were made in order to improve the boot stiffness and to allow a greater control by using stiffer and thicker leathers and by soaking the boot in hot water before use. However, these changes made the boots extremely uncomfortable.

1947 Robert Lange inserted elements made of fiberglass reinforced epoxy resin

1960 Lange produced the first ski-boot completely made of plastic, using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymers

1965 Dupont started producing injection moulded ski-boots using Adiprene, thermoplastic polyurethane.

1965 Rosemount introduced the first ski-boots completely made of composite materials, using fiberglass epoxy resin composites

1979 Taking inspiration from the joint of Sports spacesuits, a NASA engineer designed a ski-boot that was made of an additional tongue, which
was controlling the flex of the
Nowadays, ski-boots are composed of several parts assembled using screws and bolts.

The choice of the right material and design is made in order to have:
Efficient transmission of loads from the skier to the ski edge to control the ski
Quick connection of the boot with the binding and safety release of the boot in case of fall.
Absorption of shocks
Protection of the foot and of the ankle from injuries due to overloads during falls
Good comfort with uniform foot pressure and temperature/humidity optimal conditions

parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag, or in the case of ram-air parachutes, aerodynamic lift. Parachutes are usually made out of light, strong cloth, originally silk, now most commonly nylon. Depending on the situation, parachutes are used with a variety of loads, including people, food,
equipment, space capsules, and bombs.

Paragliding is sport flying in a special type of wing similar looking
to a parachute which can be launched
by running down a hill.
Ribbon and ring
The gap above the band lets air vent out. This prevents the main canopy from rupturing under pressure and the band increases the parachutes lateral stability.
1971 Apollo 15’s splashdown using a ringsail parachute design. The failed parachute did no harm to the crew.
These large leaks lower the stress on the parachute so it does not burst or shred when it opens.
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) sees Curiosity landing

Used mostly as rescue parachute: they open very quickly.
Round parachutes are purely a drag device (they provide no lift) and are used in military, emergency and cargo applications. Some skydivers call them "jellyfish 'chutes" because of the resemblance to the marine organisms.
Modern sport parachutists rarely use this type.
Ram-air parachutes
Most modern parachutes are self-inflating "ram-air" airfoils known as a parafoil that provide control of speed and direction similar to paragliders.
All ram-air parafoils have two layers of fabric; top and bottom, connected by airfoil-shaped fabric ribs to form "cells." The cells fill with high pressure air from vents that face forward on the leading edge of the airfoil.
Parasailing, also known as parascending or parakiting, is a recreational kiting activity where a person is towed behind a vehicle (usually a boat) while attached to a specially designed canopy wing that reminds one of a parachute, known as a parasail wing
The word
is derived from the French words
, meaning to shield, and
, meaning a fall.

In earlier times, parachute technology before World War I,
natural fibers like
are used to manufacture parachutes.
After World War I
was dominantly used until World War II and with some insufficient amount of silk new persuit were begun.
Synthetic fibers, especially
was begun to use with many satisfied properties.
More improved fibers like
were tried to use in parachute technology.
Parachute fabrics may be the best example among all of the textile fabrics that is subjected to almost all kind of forces and stresses in use:

The significant characteristics of parachute fabrics are:
Bending rigidity
Heat, moisture, chemical resistance
Air permeability
Air permeability and porosity increase doesn't have good effect on parachute perfomance.

Air permeability has effects on opening shock, drag and stabilization of the parachute.

To obtain optimum permeability of fabric, during finishing process, coating and calendering are applied to fabric.
Experimental studies have shown a positive linear relationship between the total pore size and predicted air permeability values.
Due to the differences between ideal and real geometry and random variation of fabric structure there are no exactly dependences between experimental air permeability and predicted air permeabiliy values.
Unlike fabric, cords are one-dimensional components and they are affected by gravitational and drag forces across their longitudinal axis.
The expected properties of cords are low drag, high strength, optimum elongation, good stabilization,
lower volume packing, non-twisted lines,
good durability, lower cost, good abrasion resistance,
easy handling/sewing techniques requirement,
less weight.
: the first synthetic yarn used in cords and it has a medium drag, good durability, low cost good elongation, but high bulk and heavy weight properties.

: originated from polyester has very similar properties with nylon but less stretch and great UV resistance properties. Today it is preferred instead of nylon for cords.

: lightweight, poor durability, less stretch than Dacron and poor abrasion resistance. Kevlar lines may have sharper openings.

: high modulus polyethylene fiber has excellent durability, low weight and small diameter. Risk of entanglements for Spectra lines.
: low weight, low volume, low permeability, inexpensive. Also it is durable and abrasion resistant. Its disadvantage is its weakness against UV light.

: similar properties with nylon, but it is expensive and dying is difficult for it. It's better UV resistant and has low permeability.

: stronger, more heat resistant, and lightest weight material among others. It's more expensive and difficult to control during cutting and sweating operations.
The main function of the rope is to absorb the energy of the falling climber and bring him to rest, without transmitting large force to his body through his harness. For this reason, relatively elastic ropes, which stretch appreciably when loaded, are desirable in climbing.
Dynamic climbing ropes have to show:
high strength
good elastic properties
durability (i.e. abrasion, UV light and thermal cycling resistance)
water resistance
stiffness and knotability
Materials and construction of climbing ropes have evolved
from traditional natural fibers with a 'hawser laid' structure,
to the modern kernmantel construction, consisting of parallel
twisted yarns surrounded by braided sheath. The majority of today's climbing ropes are manufactured from semi-crystalline nylon-6, the properties of which are controlled by
relative fractions of axially aligned crystalline and amorphous phases.

Each yarn of "Golden Dry" ropes has a core and a sheath both treated with a hydrophobic chemical compound before
manufacture. This
compound is
at high
Properties of "Golden Dry" ropes:
lightweight even in wet conditions
controlled swelling during water absorption
better long-term running of ropes through
belay devices
better abrasion resistance
If the sheath is cut or torn,
the core and sheath remain
bonded together.
The No-edge concept eliminates the traditional “edges” of the sole.This allows the foot to come into closer contact with the rock surface, thus enhancing foot sensitivity and allowing a greater, homogenous push on the hold. With the No-Edge construction climbing becomes more fluid, instinctive and harmonious.
Upper: Suede leather combined with microfiber. Slip lasted.
Midsole: Laspoflex 1,1 combined to P3 System.
Sole: Vibram® XSGrip2
3 mm.

Vibram is the world leader in the production and sale of high performance rubber outsoles in the markets of sport, leisure, work footwear, orthopedic and repair.
The history of Vibram dates back to 1937, when Vitale Bramani, Academic of the Italian Alpine Club, returned from a tragic alpine climb and had the brilliant idea of
developing rubber hiking boot soles.

P3® — Permanent Power Platform leaves the arched shape of the climbing shoe unaltered, without compromising original performance and push-power, even after years of hard use.
Laspoflex — Super lightweight, ultra-thin synthetic fiber-laminate designed for maximum torsion rigidity.

R.Shishoo - Textiles in Sport - Woodhead Publishing (2005)

W. Fung - Coated and Laminated Textiles - Woodhead Publishing (2002)

A. R. Bunsell - Handbook of tensile properties of textile and technical fibres - Woodhead Publishing (2009)

J. W. S. Hearle - High-performace fibres - Woodhead Publishing (2001)

T. Hongu, G. O. Phillips - New Fibers - Woodhead Publishing (1997)

A. Abbott, M. Ellison - Biologically inspired textiles - Wodhead Publishing (2008)

A.J. McLaren - Design and performance of ropes for climbing and sailing - Journal of Materials Design and Applications (2006) - 220: 1

E. P. van der Putten, C. J. Snijders - Shoe design for prevention of injuries in sport climbing -Applied Ergonomics 32 (2001) pp. 379-387

M. F. Canbolat - Parachute Industry & Its Dynamics - Electronic Journal of Textile Technologies Vol: 5, No: 1, (2011) pp. 72-83

E. Bye and L. Hakala - Sailing apparel for women: a design development case study - Clothing and Textiles Research Journal (2005) 23: 45

H. Chowdhury, F. Alam, D. Mainwaring - Aerodynamic study of ski jumping suits - Procedia Engineering 13 (2011) pp. 376–381

M. Colonna, M. Nicotra, M. Moncalero - Materials, designs and standards used in ski-boots for alpine skiing - Sports (2013), Vol.1, pp. 78-113

G. Fauland, P. Hofer, W. Nachbauer T. Bechtold - Moisture management properties of ski-boot liner materials - Textile Research Journal (2012) p. 82: 99

V. Senner, F. I. Michel, S. Lehner - Ski equipment-related measures to
reduce knee injuries - bfu – Swiss Council for Accident Prevention (2013) Art. no. 2.119

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the air permeability of woven fabrics -The Journal of The Textile Institute (2012) Vol. 103, No. 6, pp. 654 - 661

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W. Jinliang - Application of composite materials on sport equipments - Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 155-156 (2012) p. 903-906







The low profile rubber used for the "no-edge" construction reduces the distance between foot and rock surface, thereby making your feet more sensitive and "aware" of their surroundings.
The "no-edge" construction allows the foot to exert homogeneous pressure on the inside area of the shoe, transferring this externally to all areas of the rock surface instead of just a few specific points. This allows the climb to become more fluid and contributes to enhanced durability of the product.
NanoSphere® is a finishing technology that provides a natural self-cleaning effect and an extremely high level of water and dirt repellence. This process specifically alters the surface of the textile with nanoparticles. The technology is being used in clothing (sport and outdoor wear, business and workwear) as well as in many other areas (such as soft furnishings and upholstery).

Of all the materials, textiles are those with which entertain the closer relationship.
Clothing has been adopted and modified over the century in an attempt to achieve the natural state of "comfort"
As technology becomes more invisible, new functionality will become more conventional and everyday products of the future will interact with users to ensure their health, comfort and enhanced lifestyle.
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