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Neuro-Biology & Developmental Psychology

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Deborah Higa

on 22 April 2014

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Transcript of Neuro-Biology & Developmental Psychology

Developing Through the Life Span
The Competent Newborn
Rooting Reflex- (nature) infants tendency to seek food source

Rapid development of sight and hearing

Conception & Prenatal Conception
Sperm meets egg

Zygote -> Embryo -> Fetus
Neuro-Biology & Developmental Psychology
Infancy & Childhood
Cognitive Development
1. Sensorimotor- (birth-2y/o) Hearing, touching, looking, mouthing, grasping
2. Preoperational- (2-6 y/o)
Learns language, illogical thinking
Egocentric- "All about me"
3. Concrete Operational (6-11 y/o) Basic Logical thinking
4. Formal Operational- (12 + y/o ) Abstract logical thinking

Social Development

Behavior Geneticists
study our differences and weigh the relative effects of heredity and environment
set of complete instructions for making an organism, containing all the genes in that organism.
a person’s stable emotional reactivity and intensity. Identical twins express similar temperaments, suggesting heredity predisposes temperament
Developmental Psychology
Developmental Psychology- Study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
Adolescence- The transition period from childhood to adulthood
Puberty- The period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
Primary Sex Characteristics-The body Structures that makes reproduction possible
Secondary Sex Characteristics- non reproductive sexual characteristics
Menarche-first menstrual period
Identity-one's sense of elf
Intimacy- the ability to form close,loving relationships
Physical Development
Brain Development
Age 3-6 y/o most growth in frontal lobes
Development of thinking, memory, and language
Pruning is adolescence (eliminate excess connections)
Chromosomes with DNA
are in the nucleus of a cell
Motor Development
Rolling -> Sitting -> Crawling -> Walking
Maturation in cerebellum
Twin and Adoption Studies
Developing Morality
Study of identical twins separately at birth or raised together, and found numerous similarities
Infantile Amnesia- Inability to recall memories prior to 3 y/o
Preconventional Morality
Before age 9, most children have a preconventional morality of self interest. They obey either to avoid punishment or to gain rewards
Conventional Morality
-By early adolescence
-Cares for others and upholds laws and social rules
Affirms people's agreed upon rights or follows what one personally percieves as basic ethical principals
Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
Attachment- emotional tie with another person
Body contact (safe haven & secure base)
Critical Period- optimal period for stimuli to produce proper development
Parental neglect & other trauma ->
inability to form attachments ->
withdrawn behavior/ attachment problems

May increase aggressiveness & defiance
Adult and Reflections on Developmental Issues
Self- Concept
Sense of one's identity and personal worth
Parenting does have an effect on biologically related and unrelated children
Menopause-time of natural cessation of menstruation
Alzheimers Disease- one form of dementia that gradually gets worse over time. It affects memory, thinking, and behavior.
Cross Sectional Study- a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
Longitudinal study-research in which the same people are restudied and rested over a long period
Crystallized intelligence-accumulated knowledge nd verbal skills
Fluid intelligence-ability to reason speedily and abstractly
Social clock- the culturally preferred timing of social events

What are the 4 stages of Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Evolutionary Psychology
studies why we as humans are alike. (Evolutionary behavior & natural selection)
Natural Selection
is an evolutionary process through which adaptive traits are passed on to ongoing generations to survive and reproduce
rules for accepted and expected behavior
culture nurtures an individual’s personal identity
Biopsychosocial influences on successful aging
Alzheimer's Disease
composed of behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group
The most common cause of dementia among older people. Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning—thinking, remembering, and reasoning—and behavioral abilities, to such an extent that it interferes with a person’s daily life and activities. Dementia ranges in severity from the mildest stage, when it is just beginning to affect a person’s functioning, to the most severe stage, when the person must depend completely on others for basic activities of daily living.
Adults Commitments
group identity is favored in culture
committing to one person at a time.
Parents nurturing their children

employed in a career which starts with years ina university and training.
Gender Roles
expectations of how men and women are supposed to behave
Gender Identity
how a person views himself or herself in terms of gender
Some human traits are fixed
i.e two eyes
Genes are pliable or self-regulating
(natural selection)
Genes and environment affect our traits individually, but more important are their interactive effects
Genes can influence traits which affect responses, and environment can affect gene activity
Mating Preference
Mate with multiple women because of the lower costs
Look for youthful appearing females
Mate with one mature and caring male
Look for maturity, dominance, affluence and boldness in males
Parent and Peer
largely genetic
support is essential in nurturing children
Attempt to fit into a group by conforming
Learning to cooperate with others and developing interactions

Cultures differ
i.e. Men holding hands in Saudi Arabia is the norm, but not in American culture

Individualist cultures (European) raise their children as independent individuals
Collectivist cultures (Asian) raise their children as interdependent
Young and old, women form more connections (friendships) with people than do men
Men behave in more aggressive, physical ways
In most societies, men are socially dominant
Men emphasize freedom and self-reliance
we learn gender behavior through reinforcement, punishment, and observation
Social Learning Theory
Gender Schema Theory
we learn a cultural “recipe” of how to be a male or a female, which influences our gender- based perceptions and behaviors
What are the 3 stages of morality?
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