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Copy of ToK Presentation: Sense Perception
Transcript of Copy of ToK Presentation: Sense Perception
Another Real-Life Situation
Loftus & Palmer (1974)
About how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?
About how fast were the cars going when they collided into each other?
About how fast were the cars going when they bumped into each other?
About how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?
About how fast were the cars going when they contacted into each other?
-these words have very different connotations regarding speed and force impact
To what extent is perception a reliable way of knowing ?
'Clothes make the man', psychology today
Other Real-Life Situations
what is perception?
-Perception is the state of being aware of something through our five senses- sight, sound, touch, taste and smell.
-Our senses are an important source of knowledge about the world but rather than passively reflect reality they actively structure it.
-Perception consists of two elements: sensation and interpretation
-Visual illusions illustrate the role played by interpretation in perception
-Perception is selective: its affected by mood, intensity, contrast, interest, expectations, language etc
-The fallibility of perception is relevant to real world issues (e.g. eye witness testimony )
What shapes our perception ?
How emotions distort our sense of perception
perception is probably the most ‘immediate’ way of knowing, and the first that we develop as human beings. The key question to contend with is how reliable our sense of perception is, and to what extent we can rely on it to provide us with ‘true’ knowledge.
-Depending on our state of mind or what mood we are in can have a major impact on how we perceive something.
-A persons mood or emotional feelings can trigger perceptual expectations which lead that person to perceive things differently according to what mood they may be in.
-implying that a person in a bright mood may perceive something that is potentially quite dull in a pleasant way- optimistic
-however a person who may feel miserable may perceive a happy thing as being horrible - pessimistic
-an optimist will see a glass half-full where as a pessimist sees the glass as half-empty.
How language can manipulate our perception
-The way something is described affects the way we perceive it.
-For example if a person describes something in a positive way using lots of happy connotations chances are another person will perceive that something in a positive way, even if the something is not that positive. Where as if someone describes something in a negative way using unhappy connotations another person is more likely to perceive that something in a negative way again even though that something may be a positive thing.
-They are using language to manipulate your perception.
How expectations can interfere with our perception
-How we expect something to be can interfere with how we perceive them.
-If something does not quite hit someone's expectations, that something can trigger a person to perceive that something in a much different way to how they would have without having any expectations.
-If there is a high expectation which is not reached a persons perception of that will be even lower than it might actually be.
- If there is a really low expectation which is exceeded then a person may perceive that something a lot higher than it actually is.
Mathematics vs. arts
-perception is used as a way of knowing to a much lesser extent as we are constantly using reason to go beyond the immediate evidence of our senses.
- there is a right or wrong answer and to get to the answer we rarely use our sense of perception we simply use logic and reasoning.
-We gain a sense of certainty. 1+1=2
-perception is used as a way of knowing to a much greater extent as we use our senses as evidence.
‘what is art?’ ‘what is the value of art?’ ‘what is the difference between art and non-art?’
-these kinds of questions do not have a wrong or right answer, the answer is how we perceive art ourselves.
-Art is ambiguous a lot of the time which is why our sense of perception is involved.
perception is a reliable way of knowing
-Manipulated distorted and changed through emotion language and expectations.
-people may disagree, personality , 'set in stone'
-our senses are our primary way of interacting with the world, used long before use of language, emotions etc..
People are used all the time as eye witness testimonies in court to testify something they saw. should the court truly rely on a persons perception of an event to determine a convicts fate.