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Copy of 4.05 Collaboration Component

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Maggie LaFear

on 2 December 2014

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Transcript of Copy of 4.05 Collaboration Component

Chemical Reactions: Combustion
Maggie LaFear and Vanessa Maybruck

November 23, 2014
4.05 Collaboration Component
Carbon Monoxide Detectors
Fire Extinguishers
Smoke Detectors
Types of Smoke Detectors
Statistics
Photoelectric Detector 1
- Inside the detector, there is a photoelectric cell which generates an electric current upon exposure to light
- This electrical current prompts an alarm circuit to remain open
- When smoke particles enter the smoke detector, the light source is blocked
- In conclusion, when the light is blocked, the circuit breaks and the alarm goes off.
Photoelectric Detector 2
- The photoelectric cell is purposely not exposed to the LED light source.
- When smoke particles enter the part of the chamber, they spread out so as to expose the cell to the light from the LED.
- At that moment, the cell generates an electric current, and the alarm goes off.
Ionization Detector
- Radioactive elements and compounds are used to create ions from the air molecules that pass in between two electrodes in the detector.
- These molecules are ionized; then, they conduct a small electric current.
- Smoke particles attach to and interfere with the ions
- The current loses strength, and this triggers the alarm.
Three out of five home fire deaths resulted from fires in properties without working smoke alarms.
The risk of dying in reported home structure fires is cut in half in homes with working smoke alarms.
Battery-powered smoke alarms operated in 79% of fires. Whereas hardwired smoke alarms operated 93% of the time

Almost half (47%) of the smoke alarms had missing or disconnected batteries.
In one-quarter of the home fire deaths, smoke alarms were present but did not sound
Which detector should you invest in?
If the smoke particles are small and the fire burns quickly, an ionization detector works more effectively
Photoelectric detector works better in the event of a slower-burning fire that has large smoke particles
Officials recommend the use of both types of smoke detectors in different parts of the house.
*detectors can be battery or electricity powered*
Sources
"Smoke Alarms in U.S. Home Fires Fact Sheet." Nfpa.org. National Fire Protection Association, 1 Mar. 2014. Web. 24 Nov. 2014.

The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Smoke detector.” Encyclopædia Britannica, 15 July 2013. Web. 20 November 2014.

"Fast Facts about Fire." Safety Information. National Fire Protection Association, n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.

Guest, H. Brandon, Hamel Volunteer Fire Department. “Frequently Asked Questions about Carbon Monoxide Detectors.” University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1995. Web. 20 November 2014.

"Types of Fire Extinguishers." EHS Safety Training. Oklahoma State University, n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.

"Smoke Alarms in U.S. Home Fires Fact Sheet." Nfpa.org. National Fire Protection Association, 1 Mar. 2014. Web. 24 Nov. 2014.
Types of Detectors
House Current Detectors
These detectors have “solid-state sensors” that take carbon monoxide samples throughout the day and display the results. The sensors in these detectors require more power than the ones found in battery detectors because of the cycle of CO readings that they take each day
Battery Powered Detectors
Detectors that run on battery have a different type of sensor that responds when it has been exposed to CO gas for a long period of time.
What kind should you invest in?
Both types work well, and neither is preferred, but to be safe, you must make sure that there is at least one detector on each level of one's house.
Statistics
In 2010, U.S. fire departments responded to an estimated 80,100 non-fire CO incidents in which carbon monoxide was found, or an average of nine such calls per hour. The number of incidents increased 96 percent from 40,900 incidents reported in 2003
In 2010, 77 percent (an estimated 124 deaths) of CO poisoning victims were males, and
23 percent (38 deaths) were females
NVSS indicates that an average of 477 people per year died of unintentional CO
poisoning in 2007 to 2008 (excluding deaths in uncontrolled fires and motor vehicles).
One thousand nine hundred seven cases were reported between August 1, 2008 and July 31,
2011.
Carbon monoxide deaths are more prevent in the winter months.
Types of Extinguishers
Air Pressured Water (APW) Fire Extinguisher
- The air pressurizes the water
- The water puts out the fire because water absorbs heat
- By taking away the heat energy given off by the combustion reaction, the fire is stopped.
- this fire extinguisher, however, is limited to wood, paper, and cloth fires (Class A fires) only
Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers
- CO2 sprays out of this extinguisher.
- It displaces the oxygen needed for the combustion reaction to occur
- Also, the carbon dioxide is cold, and this helps to take away the heat energy
- These fire extinguishers are useful for Class B (flammable liquid) and Class C (electrical) fires, but not Class A
Dry Chemical Extinguishers
- This type contain dry chemical powder that covers the fuel source of the fire and separates it from the air.
- This extinguishes the fire because the fuel and the oxygen gas in the air can no longer react.
- For example, the main component of the powder in the ABC dry chemical extinguishers is monoammonium phosphate and are pressurized by nitrogenous gas.
What type of extinguisher should you buy?
Dry chemical extinguishers, the ABC ones in particular, are the most effective of the three types listed here.
Statistics
Fire extinguishers effectively put out 80% of all fires.
94 percent of the time a portable
fire extinguisher is used, it puts out the fire–
typically within the initial two minutes.
Incendiary/Suspicious fires were the cause of 36.9% of Kindergarten/Elementary School Fires
93 percent of all
fire-related deaths occur once the fire has
progressed beyond the early stages; therefore if a fire extinguisher is used in the early stages of a fire, death can be highly prevented.
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