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Water Balance

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andre caron

on 9 September 2013

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Transcript of Water Balance

Body Water & Electrolyte Homeostasis
Distribution of
Water
Functions of Water
Normally, total body water is maintained at a constant volume with equilibrium between
intake
and
output
.
Water Balance
Composition of Body Water
Fluid Volume and
Distribution
Osmosis
Regulation of Water
Disorders of Water Imbalance
Provides a medium were solutes can be dissolved
Place for metabolic processes to occur
Why is water important?
Depends on
essential

body fat
content
Age & Sex
Fluid Compartments
Transportation of nutrients, electrolytes and gases
Medium for food metabolism
Excretion of waste products
Lubrication of joints and membranes
Regulation of body temperature
Table 1: Adapted from Kaplan, Clinical Chemistry 6th ed. 2010 pg 536
Body water contains ions which are dissociated electrolytes in solution.
Electrolyte is a term that reflects the major ions of body fluids
Sodium (Na+)
Potassium (K+)
Chloride (Cl-)
Bicarbonate (HCO3-)
Calcium (Ca2+)
Electrolyte composition and concentration of
Extracellular Fluid
(plasma) mmol/L
Electrolyte composition and concentration of
Intracellular fluid
in mmol/L
Why are electrolytes important?
Regulate pH balance
Used in the transmission of nerve impulses
Control osmotic pressure
Utilized in metabolic processes
Cofactors for enzymes
Osmosis
Osmotic Pressure
Osmolality
Passive movement of water across
semi-permeable membrane
Moves from an area of low solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration
Osmotic Pressure
Regulates the inward flow of water
Osmotic pressure represents a hydrostatic pressure that develops and is maintained when two solutions of different concentrations exist on opposite sides of a semipermeable membrane.
http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=NUR4004
Osmolality
Physical property of a solution that is based on the concentration of solutes per kilogram of solvent.
Expressed as (mmol/kg H2O).
Regulation of ECW and blood volume depends on the independent action of the hypothalamus, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, natriuretic peptides and the kidney
Hypothalamus
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
Arterial blood pressure
Potassium balance
Purpose is to regulate:
Sodium & water content
Aldosterone proceeds to absorb Na+ in the kidney. Water will accompany Na+ ions as part of the reabsorption process.
Natriuretic peptides
Family of peptides that have reciprocal effects to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
Released in response to intravascular volume expansion.
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
C-type Natriuretic Peptide
Brain Natriuretic Peptide
Produced in response to stretching of the atrial cavity (increased blood volume).
1.ANP reduces venous pressure by suppressing sympathetic nervous system activity
2.ANP initiates natriuresis and diuresis
3.Suppresses the renin angiostensin aldosterone system and antagonistic of ADH in the collecting ducts
4.In the brain, ANP inhibits salt appetite, water intake and secretion of ADH
Produced in the left cardiac ventricles in response to left ventricular pressure over load
Produced and secreted by vascular endothelial cells, brain and renal tubules in response to ANP & BNP. It is a potent venous dilator.
Dehydration
Overhydration
Deficit of Water
Deficit of Water and Sodium
Decrease in TBW with relatively normal total body sodium levels
water & food deprivation
excessive sweating
diuretic therapy
water is < Na+
water is > Na+
water is = Na+
Hyponatremic or hyposmolar dehydration
Normonatremic or isomolar dehydration
Hypernatremic or hyperosmolar dehydration
=
Water Intoxication
Polydipsia
Impaired renal free water excretion caused by ADH secretion in excess
Excessive Water
Excessive Water and Sodium
Retention of Na+ and water
Nephrotic syndrome
Congestive heart failure
Primary hyperaldosteronism
Summary
or sl
1. Differentiate between intracellular and extracellular fluids

2. List the major cations and anions in intracellular and extracellular fluid

3. Define osmosis, osmotic pressure and osmolality

4. State the problems associated with water imbalance.

5. Identify the organ system that plays a key role in electrolyte balance, water balance and acid-base balance
Full transcript