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Copy of Fitness Choices

Everyday we are engaged in a variety of physical activity; whether washing the car or playing sports. to maintain health and fitnesss benefits moderate to vigorous activity is required.

connel field

on 11 April 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Fitness Choices

Fitness Choices Individual fitness activities Meaning of exercise The value that people
place on exercise and fitness Everyday, we engage in physical activity whether making our beds or playing sport. To gain and maintain health and fitness benefits moderate to vigorous activity is necessary. Group fitness activities Settings for exercise Advertisement and promottion Motivators and barriers to
participation exercise as a form of physical activity physical activity had always been
considered a positive lifestyle behaviour.
Exercise (as physical activity) is planned,
structured and repetivitve boldily movement. It
is performed to improve or maintain one or more
componenets of physical fitness.
Exercise can vary in intensity which is categorised
as: - light (activity requiring 3-4 times
as much energy as rest)
- moderate (activity requiring 5-6 times
as much energy as rest)
- vigorous (activity requiring >7 time
as much energy as rest)
When exercising aiming for the target heart rate (THR)
is very helpful. [ THR = 220 - age ]

Child and youth recommendations (<15years)
Frequency: every day of the week
Intensity: moderate
Duration: 60 minutes
Type: range of activities including weight-bearing acitivites

Adult recommendation
Frequency: most/every day of the week
Intensity: moderate
Duration: 30 minutes
Type: range of activities exercise and its relationship to fitness Physical fitness refers to a set of attributes that
people have or achieve relating to their performance.
These attributes can be divided into two components:
1) health-related:
- cardorespiratory fitness
- flexibility
- muscular endurance
- strength
- body composition
2) skill-related:
- speed
- power
- coordination
- balance
- agility
- reaction time

Including fitness as a regular life-style behaviour is essential to improve and main health and fitness. Exericse program musch meet you exercise needs. changing attitudes to fitness the level of participation in physical activity
has improved shows a report by the NSW Centre for
Physical Activity and Health in January, 2007.
Findings included:
- increase in partipcation for those >16 years old
- walking was a major contributor to increased particpation since 2004
- media coverage may have assited in motivating people.

Attitudes determine the regularity of a person's fitness activity. Influencial factors include:
- age (18-29year old are most active)
- gender (males are most active)
- family (those with active parents wil become active themselves)
- peers (person's peer group perspective on exercise)
- media (raising the awareness of fitness benefits)
- past experience
- cultural (social support is not provided to non-English-speakers
-socioeconomic status (lower educatiion = lower physical activity) fitness as a commodity Commodification: the process of turning something into a commodity that
can be bouth and sold.

The commodification of exercise and fitness arrived in the 1970s where
individuals, communities, governments and businesssectors became aware
of the need for everyone to participate in activities that imrpoved
their health.
Fitness centres offer a range of activities designed to meet every
exercise and fitness need; promoting a range of services. Through
advertisement the fitness industry aims to convince the consumer that
by using their services it will be most beneficial for them.
Consumers are drawn in with special deals, a range of fitness
activities, extended hours and child minding facilities.

Consumers do need to realise that gyms aren't a quick fix to
their health and fitness levels but commitment and dedication is.
Though with motivation and expertise at gyms goals can be more
easily reached. If gyms are not your thing then there are exercise
videos and DVDs, fitness clothing, nutritional supplements,
home gyms and exercise machine.

Advance technology has also assisted in an individual improving
their fitness. these devices include:
- heart rate monitors
- computerised exercise equipment
- body fat monitors/scales power walking One of the lowest impact activities is the common power walk. Brisk walking (4-6km/h) for approximately 30 minutes a day
will imrpove your fitness and overall health. Powerwalking is safe, cheap and convenient as it can be done at anytime.
Benefits of regular walking include:
- a more confident, happier and relaxed lifestyle
- controlling of weight
- lowering blood pressure and cholesterol levels
- strengthening bones
- minimising risk of heart attack, stroke or diabetes running Performed at moderate or vigorous intensity. It
involves the movement of the whole body resulting in an
effective aerobic activity. 20 minutes of running is an
excellence fitness option for indivudals with minimal spare time.
It is important to begin slowly and increase intensity with the
increase of your fitness level.
Intensity increase can be done by increasing:
- distance
- speed
- challenging environments (eg hills) swimming Swimming laps using various strokes improves cardiovascular
efficiency as one of its major health benefits. Swimming can be enjoyed
throughout the year (heated indoor pools for Winter) with it's
relatively inexpensive cost and minimal equipment required.
The popularity of swimming as increased leading to the emergence of
aquarobics. Swimming is low impact, ut gives the whole body a workout.
It is also beneficial to those suffering from asthma as it contributes
to the building up of lung capacity; and those rehabiliating from injury
due to its buoyancy effect. cycling Cycling is mainly enjoyed in years of youth with
it becoming less common as people grow older. It
provides a good cardiovascular workout and can
have benefical effects on fitness when cycling at
a vigorous intensity level (>16kph)
The cycling industry hashas endeavoured to make it
more accessible to everyone by producing stationary bikes
for home use; which is ideal for those who are not competent
or confident riding on the road. weight training programs Weight training programs can be undertaken at home or in a gym
that has the ultimate and appropriate equipment. Programs undertaken
can either be:
- isometric (muscles develop tension but do not change length)
e.g. pushing/pulling against an immovable object
- isotonic (lift weights through a full range of motion and movement)
e.g. free weights and weight machines
- isokinetic (maximum muscle tension through the full range of movement)
e.g. using of isokinetic machines

Weight training can used be used for various aspects including:
- adding of muscle bulk
- increase in strength
- improved power
- develop endurance

When using weight training programs it is important to seek expert advice
This is to discuss the number of repetitions and sets that is suitable
for your standard and fitness level tai chi Tai ch is one of the martial art systems that is enjoyed
by people of all ages due to its slow controlled movements. Due to this focus people who suffere from arthritis, lower back pain and stress will benefit from this fitness activity.
Tai chi is a series of combined exercises into a routine; coordinating both mind and respiration. This will be most beneficial to a persons physical well-being and balance.
The principles of balance that are explored include:
- joint involvement (ankle, knee, hip)
- lower body awareness
- posture pilates Pilate programs focus on the development of core muscles allowing an improved body balance, posture and alignment. This added strength and flexibility to torso muscles enables better control of the back and limbs (including balance and coordination). Pilates has become increasingly popular for those who take interesting in sports where core strength is important to stabilise the spine to enable safer, for more forceful movements. yoga There is not only one distinct type of yoga; but various
types of this Indian originated physical activity. It focuses
on the body's energy flow with concentration on breathing
exercises (pranayama), and physical postures (asanas).
Yoga is beneficial of all ages as it ranges from gentle to demanding,
and allows the re-energising of the body, reduces stress, improves
flexibility and muscle tone, and improves immunity. Emerging individual physical activity The traditional ways ofimproving fitness (swimming, running, cycling) alternate ways and
methods are constantly being promoted. fitness facilities and centres have played a big
part in the promoting of these alternate mways trough equipment and activities that challenge
physical demands of consumers.
Exercising in the privacy of your own home has increased in popularity with the advance
tecnhnoloy of treadmills, rowing machines and cross-trainers. Fitness centres continue to have
better and imrpoved equipment with weight training machines, free weights, sport-specific training
equipment, step machines and warm-up/stretch rooms.
There has also been a rapid growth in the personal training industry with the expansion in the
fitness industry. aerobics aquarobics pump classes step classes spin classes circuit training team games exercise for specific groups Pregant women:


People training for fitness

The aged: These classes incorporate various exercises to the
rhythm of music. A class would involve 3 phases:
- warm-up
- conditioning
- cool-down

Classes can be for all ages and be low or high impact;
continuously working on cardiovascular efficiency, strength,
flexibility and agility. They are also aimed to increase
participants' heart rate to 130-140bpm. Evolved from aerobics; aquarobics involves conditioning exercises similar to those
used in aerobics. Aquarobics provides a whole body workout with the more resistant water
pushing against them. Elderly, overweight or those suffering from back or joint problems
benefit from aquarobics due to its cushioning effect of the water Pump classes are non-aerobic fitness classes that involve the
use of barbells to improve:
- muscle tone
- strength
- endurance
Major muscles are worked on by participants following the
instructor and the rhythm to the music. The weights used are
adjusted to suit all fitness levels in this class; and is
therefore a good class for those who wish to improve:
- muscletone
- body shape Spin classes (also known as cycle classes or RPM)
is a demanding physical actity where participants
perform routines on stationary exercise bicycles.
Music enhances the atmosphere while the
participants following the instructorthrough
a warm-up followed by routines involving various resistance and speed levels.
Spin classes are helpful to improve cardiorespiratory
fitness, and to those who suffer from joint injuries or tendonitis. Using a step platform and aerobic movements;
step classes imrpove sboth cardiovascular fitness
and muscular endurance. This class is suitable
for all ages with the capability of intensity
adjustment to a suitable level for each individual.
Moves incorporated into these classes are highly
choreographed, high intensity and dynamic movements. Circuit training can improve both fitness componenets and skill level. Different types of exercises are used with a specific number of repetitions within a specific amount of time. As each exercise is completed a short timed rest will
be given.
Circuits can be either anaerobic or aerobic in nature depending on:
- type
- time
- muscular endurance or cardiovascular fitness and flexibility The most popular type of exercise available is
team sport which involves the most participatnts.
Team games allow a both social and high level
competition depending on the wants/needs of the
Popular outdoor team games available include:
- netball
- soccer
- basketball
- rugby league
- rugby union
Popular indoor team games avaible include:
- euopean handball
- indoor soccer
- indoor cricket
- indoor netball

Teams sport usually come with a set time and
cost to cover affiliation fees and uniform. Exercise is both safe and encouraged when pregnant. An exercise program can benefit pregnant women in many ways including:
- maintenance of healthy heart and blood vessels
- improves muscular strength
- easing of lower back pain and leg cramps
- improve circulation
Guidelines to follow during pregnany include:
- consult your doctor about your exercise program
- listen to the messages your body gives you
- work on good posture
- exercise gently
- exercie for fun
- realise that slowing down is normal
- do not overextend your joints beyond their normal range of movement
- always warm up and cool down
- strengthen your abdominal and pelvic floor muscles
- exercise carefully if you are lying on your back
- drink plenty of water The age of children impacts on their:
- capacity to learn skills
- level of motivation to be active
- physiological capabilities
- susceptibility to injury
Children have a lower level of motor control and are therefore unable to process a lot of information at one given time. Young children should focus on having fun, skill developmen and acitity; NOT competition, It is essential for an individual to have a specific training program if their goal is to maintin a high level of fitness so that they can be competitive. This training needs to of high quailty and using the FITT framework for program design. Regular physical activity can be beneficial to older people. Gradual decline in our physiological capablities decline with age leading to:
- reduced heart/lung capacity
- bone density
- muscular strength
The physical, social and psychological benefits lead to imrpoved well-being. emerging group fitness activities Different, interesting and challenging allow for imrpoved motivation to
maintain fitness and support.
Latest fitness activities include:
- circuit and team games
- boot camps
- dance and core exercise at home Exercising may be the most practicaly option
for individuals with children or long work hours.
Home gyms with the availability of weights and
wieght machines, treadmills, steppers and
stationary bicycles at sport stores have become
more popular.
Relatively little equipment workouts are also
capable with exercise videos and DVDs available. community facilities In larger communities exercise facilities are readily available to individuals, supplying them with a greater exercise choice compared to those who live in smaller communities.
Community leisure centres are likely to convenienty supply a number of activities at its venue; with barious facilities.

Activities may include:
- areobic classes
- step classes
- pump classes
- weight training
- swimming
- boxing
- yoga
- martial arts
- circuit training Facilities may include:
- pools
- indoor basketball courts
- indoor badminton courts
- indoor volleyball courts
- indoor gymnasium fitness centres and personal trainers Fitness centres are most commonly used by individuals aiming to imrpove their fitness level.
Fitness classes and weight facilities are supplied
With classes including:
- aerobics
- step
- pump
- flex
- body
Weight facilities including:
- weights
- weight training machines
Aerobic equipment available include:
- treadmills
- steppers
- stationary bicycles

Personal trainers can be either a centre employee or self-employed and are very useful for
individuals who are not confident or knowledge of resistance traing or general exercise
principals; and to those with little motivation. - sculpt
- yoga
- tai chi
- cycle
- power boxing exercise clubs Exercise clubs are growing in popularity with being a great way to social with friends on a regular basis. It is suitable for those who wish to socialise all the way up to those who want to play at a competitive level. Common club sports include:
- running
- walking
- cycling
These clubs are useful to get into a rhythm of exercising on a regular basis, especially for individual physical activity. cultural groups As Australia continues to grow as a multicultural country the opportunities to participate in cultural based forms pf physical activity has increased.
Eg. cultural dance groups
Factors influencing an individuals participation in cultural groups may include:
- physical ability
- cost
- availability
- health benefits
- friendships how do you know who to believe? Look to see if the product/service is promoted by a recognised fitness/health institution.
What qualifications does the service have and was is the basis of their expertise promotional techniques Specific techniques in advertising/promoting are used to attract consumers.
Looking at various advertisements of community gyms supply the consumer with little information.
Be sure to:
- compare products
- seek advice from people in the fitness industry
- investigate the quality of the product or service advertised accuracy of information A technique used in advertising involves the glossing up of advertisements to make it more attractive and appealing to consumers.
If unsure about information in advertisements always ask people with more knowledge or expertise in the field. ethics of advertising It is vital for consumers to realise that there
are a range of products and services available
in the fitness industry.
Fale information is illegal though there can be
misleading information so it is important to remember
that the fitness industry use advertising techniques
to attract consumers and make money.
It is also important at the same time to know there
are many genuine fitness products and service
providers out there. access to facilities Partipcation can be both impacted and influence
by the availability of exercise facilities. Other
influences may include:
- physical isolation
- financial circumstances convenience of use An individual will be more willing to become involved
in physical activity if it is convenient for them.
This may include:
- the activity located close to home
- the activity located on the way to home
- easily access by public transport cost $$$ Barriers within cost arise resulting in ack of participation
for particular individuals as a lack of mony can mean
restriction upon the range and type of activity suitable to
their financial situation.
Cost can occure for:
- exercise clothing (including shoes)
- social sports
- use of finess centre
- use of a swimming pool feelings about finess and exercise Being involved in exercise or any physical activity at a young age can affect the
attitdue towards exercise the individual has in the future. If these feelings at a
young age are unpleasant and negative this can develop to form a barrier between
exercise and an adult lifestyle. Exercise should be both fun and enjoyable for a
young child; not intimidatin. exercise as a priority Exercise has become less of a priority to Australian people with lives
becoming busier and work being stressful and contain long hours. For
this mentality of work being more important to change; involves the
educating of people about the benefits of physical activity on a regular basis. influence of other responsibilities Being a parent (especially a mother) can lead to a lack
of exercise as having children will result in less time for
thmeselves especially with young children. It is impotant
for a parent to plan their day and have a strong grasp on
time management in order to put aside time for physical activity/exercise.
Ways of increasing recreation physical activity with their families include:
- walking to the shops
- walking to school
- involvement in children's sport
Dividing the wrk between the two parents will also benefit both
halves as this will allow each to have time to engage in exercise.
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