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Transcript of ESU STIs
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)
What are they??
A Sexually Transmitted Infection (or STI) is an infection that can be transferred from one person to another through sexual contact.
Curable vs. Incurable STIs
Reducing the Risk
What Can I Do??
*Note* - Sexual contact is more than just vaginal intercourse. It includes anal intercourse, oral-genital intercourse, oral-anal intercourse, and any sexual touch that involves touching genitals. Any one of these activities can put you at risk for contracting an STI.
Discussion: Myth or Fact?
1. You can get an STI from a toilet seat.
2. You can get an STI from getting a tattoo or body piercing
3. You can't get an STI from oral sex.
4. You can't get an STI if your partner is a virgin.
5. You're tested for STIs when you get your annual pap smear.
Syphilis (in early stages)
Genital HPV Infection
Chlamydia is frequently diagnosed in teens
and young adults between the ages of 15-25.
90% of men
Infected men commonly have no symptoms. If symptoms are present, there is often a watery or milky discharge from the penis and a burning sensation upon urination.
Infected women commonly show no symptoms. If symptoms are present there is most often vaginal discharge and/or bleeding, lower abdominal pain and painful urination.
Both males and females may experience rectal pain, itching, and discharge with pus or blood.
Cases in the U.S.: 1,401,906
Cases in Kansas: 11,011
Cases in Lyon County: 132
reported in 2014
“Dose”, “Clap”, “Drip”
Most common in people ages 15-30
Signs and Symptoms: Males
Most infected men have symptoms which can include a milky discharge from the penis and a burning sensation upon urination.
Signs and Symptoms: Female
Most women have no symptoms. If symptoms are present, there is often a vaginal discharge and/or bleeding or
lower abdominal pain and/or painful urination
Both males and females can experience rectal pain, itching, and discharge with blood or pus.
If a male or female has contracted Gonorrhea from oral sex, they can experience a sore throat and swollen glands.
Long Term Effects of Gonorrhea
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
Salpingitis (Inflammation of Fallopian Tubes)
Epididymitis (Pain and swelling of the testicles)
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Pain in the lower belly area.
Unusual vaginal discharge that may have a foul odor.
Painful sexual intercourse.
Irregular menstrual bleeding.
Pain during a pelvic exam.
Cases in the U.S.: 333,004
Cases in Kansas: 1,238
Cases in Lyon County: 6
Signs and Symptoms of Epididymitis
Painful scrotal swelling (testes enlarged)
A testicular lump
A tender, swollen testicle on affected side
A tender, swollen groin area on affected side
Testicular pain aggravated by bowel movement
Discharge from urethra (the opening at the end of the penis)
Pain with urination
Pain with intercourse or ejaculation
Blood in semen
Many people infected with syphilis
do not have any symptoms for years, yet remain at risk for late complications if they are not treated.
Usually marked by the appearance of a single sore called a chancre.
The chancre can last 3 to 6 weeks. It is painless and usually heals without treatment.
The time between infection and the start of first symptom can range from 10 - 90 days. Average: 21 days
Skin rash and mucous membrane lesions
Rash can appear at the same time the chancre is healing or several weeks after the chancre has healed
Fever, swollen lymph glands, sore throat, patchy hair loss, headaches, weight loss, muscle aches, and fatigue
Sign and symptoms will resolve with or without treatment. Without treatment, the disease will progress to later stages.
Begins when the secondary symptoms disappear
It can damage the internal organs, including the brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones, and joints
The internal damage may show up many years later
Signs and Symptoms
Difficulty coordinating muscle movements
Cases in the U.S.: 17,375
Cases in Kansas: 145
Cases in Lyon County: 2
reported in 2014
“Trich” or “trick”
Caused by a tiny parasite
Trichomoniasis is the most common curable STI in young sexually active women
In addition to being spread through sexual contact, it can be spread through contact with damp towels or wet clothing.
Signs and Symptoms
Most men have no symptoms, but may temporarily have an irritation inside the penis, mild discharge, or slight burning after urination or ejaculation
Some women have symptoms of infection, such as:
Frothy, yellow-green vaginal discharge
Cause discomfort during intercourse and with urination
Irritation and itching
Cases in the US: 225,000
Contagious viral infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV)
776,000 new cases occur each year in U.S.
"The gift that keeps on giving"
Signs and Symptoms
Itching, burning, pain in buttocks, or genital area, vaginal discharge, pressure in abdominal area.
Other symptoms may include: fever, headache, muscle aches, painful or difficult urination swollen glands.
Symptoms appear within 2-10 days of exposure. Last 2-10 Weeks
Most infected persons never develop any symptoms. Some will have mild symptoms shortly after infection and never develop them again
Genital HPV Infection
"High Risk" HPV
Causes abnormal pap tests
Can lead to cancer of cervix, vulva, vagina, anus or penis
"Low Risk" HPV
Causes mild Pap test abnormalities or genital warts
Genital warts are single or multiple growths or bumps that appear on the genital area
Most people with HPV are unaware that they have it.
There is now a vaccine to help prevent HPV called Gardisil. It protects against 4 strains of HPV that cause cervical cancer and warts.
Gardisil is given as 3 separate shots to girls and boys ages 9 - 26
Human Immunodeficiency (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS
HIV may be in the body for many years before any signs or symptoms of illness appear
Leaves the body vulnerable to secondary infections
It is FATAL!
HIV attacks the immune system, which is the body's natural defense against disease
How is it spread?
Unprotected sexual contact with an HIV-infected person
Sharing needles to inject drugs
HIV infected mothers can pass the disease to their infants before, during and after birth (breast feeding)
HIV is NOT spread by:
Touching, hugging, and shaking hands
Breathing and coughing
Using toilets, drinking fountains, etc.
Signs and Symptoms
Swollen lymph glands in the neck, underarm, and groin area
Recurrent fever, including “night sweats”
Rapid weight loss for no apparent reason
Diarrhea and decreased appetite
White spots or unusual blemishes in the mouth
Project TEEN Coordinator
Flint Hills Community Health Center
420 W. 15th Avenue
Emporia, Kansas 66801
(620)342-4864 ext. 3750
*It is estimated that 5 to 10 percent of all sexually active women have Trichomoniasis.
There are approximately 1 . 1 million people in the U.S. living with HIV or AIDS.
There are 3065 people in Kansas living with HIV or AIDS as of December of 2014.
There are 79 million people in the U.S. with HPV and an estimated 14 million new cases each year.
How do you know if you have one?
The most common symptom of an STI is to have no symptoms at all.
If you do have symptoms...
While each STI has its own set of symptoms, many of the symptoms overlap, so it can be very difficult to tell which STI you might have based on symptoms alone.
Common STI symptoms:
Rash, bumps, sores, or blisters around the penis, vagina, mouth or rectum
Unusual drips and smells from the penis or vagina
Itching penis, vagina, or rectum
Bleeding or pain during sex
Most of the time, the only way to know for sure if you have an STI is to get yourself tested.
If you are sexually active, you should get tested for STIs BEFORE having sex with a new partner
EVEN IF YOU DON'T HAVE SYMPTOMS
Abstain from any sexual activity.
If you're not having sex, you're not putting yourself at risk.
Use condoms correctly and consistently.
Some tips for using condoms:
-Check the package and expiration date
- Two condoms are NOT better than one. Never use more than one condom.
-Store condoms away from extreme heat, cold, light, or physical stress.
-NEVER use oil-based products as a lubricant.
-Condoms can be obtained at most drug stores, gas stations, Walmart, and any health clinic.
-Latex condoms are best. If you are allergic to latex, use polyurethane. Natural/lambskin condoms do NOT protect against all STIs.
Though male condoms are cheaper and more accessible, they also make female condoms which also provide protection against STIs.
Dental dams can also be used for protection during oral sex. Condoms can be made into dental dams by cutting off the tip, then cutting vertically to make a rectangle.
Choose your partners wisely.
The fewer partners you have, the lower your risk for STIs.
When considering sex with a new partner, it is VERY important to make sure they will respect your sexual health.
If a partner is unwilling to get tested for STIs or unwilling to use condoms, you probably want to rethink having a sexual relationship with that person.
For tips on talking to your partner about condoms, testing, and STIs, check out
Get tested regularly.
Remember that it is VERY important to be tested anytime before having sex with a new partner. It is ideal if both partners get tested together prior to having sex so they know their STD status and can get treated if necessary.
Depending on which STIs you are being tested for, testing may involve:
-A urine sample
-A blood sample
-A skin cell sample
What if I test positive?
DON'T FREAK OUT.
You are not alone. 1 in every 2 sexually active people will get an STI before the age of 25. It is not uncommon.
Tell any current or former partners.
Not disclosing your STI status can be very harmful to other people's health. If you are not comfortable contacting a partner directly, you can ask a public health staff member to do it for you anonymously.
It is ILLEGAL not to disclose that you have HIV if you know that you have it.
If you need help talking to a partner about your status, GYT has some GREAT pointers. Most partners will appreciate your honesty and respect for their health. If not, they probably aren't worth it anyway.
The STD Project is an excellent resource for those wanting to know what it's like to live with an STD. Many individuals share their personal stories of living with an STD and how it has impacted their lives.
It is also a great support system for those who are living with an STD and may feel alone because of it.
Get treated right away. Many STIs are completely curable.
For STIs that are not curable, there are treatments available to alleviate symptoms and help prevent transmission to a partner.
Cover sex toys with condoms before use. Remove the condom and replace it with a new one before sharing the toy with your partner.
DEPENDS ON DEFINITION OF "VIRGIN"
Tiny bugs less than 2 mm long that live in pubic hair. Crabs are not a major health hazard, however they cause extreme discomfort.
Crabs are generally spread through intimate contact, however, it is possible to spread from clothing, bedding or towels.