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EVOLUTION

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Esha Abid

on 25 April 2014

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Transcript of EVOLUTION


EVOLUTION
By Shaheryar Abid
How would creatures evolve if they were put into a different habitat?
Turtles
Snapping Turtles
Land Turtles
Sea Turtles
All of them are turtles
Belong to the same family
All have shells
Live in the sea
Live in the water
Can live on land for 2 weeks
Strictly land animals
Do not migrate in winter
They hibernate in winter
When they dig their burrows for winter they need to dig down deep.Some may dig down for up to 10 to 30 feet
Do not hibernate
Can go out on land for a while
Move very slowly in their own habitat
All move slowly on land
Have flippers
Have webbing on their feet
Do not have flippers or webbing on their feet, instead they have short legs and feet
Very fast in their own habitat
Migrate in winter
Lay their eggs on land
Cannot retract their heads and legs into their shell
Streamlined shell
Round shell
Cold blooded
Toothless
Ridges and bumps along their jaws
Breathe air
Aggressive on land, they will attack large animals including humans if they are disturbed
Spiky tail
Less aggressive in the water
The common musk turtle is often called a "Stinkpot" because it releases a foul smell like a skunk if it is disturbed
Eat a lot at each meal but can fast for several weeks
Omnivorous
Turtles have developed special adaptations to live

in specific environments.

Land Turtles:
Land turtles, such as box turtles spend most of their

time on land so they have developed short legs and

feet for walking on rough land. They have also

developed a tough, rounded shell and a hard

underside plate called a plastron to protect

themselves from predators.
Have claws
Sea Turtles:
Sea turtles have adapted to live in underwater environments like seas and oceans. They have evolved flippers instead of legs to help them swim very fast to escape from their enemies. This makes them move extremely slow on land. Sea turtles have small streamlined shells to help them swim away from predators such as sharks. Since they have such a small shell in comparison to their body they cannot hide from predators by retracting into their shells.
Snapping Turtles:
Snapping turtles can live both on land and in the
water. They have evolved webbed feet to help them swim underwater and claws to help them walk on land.
There are two types of Snapping turtles which are: the Common Snapping turtle and the Alligator Snapping turtle.
Common Snapping turtles eat a wide range of food. Alligator Snapping turtles on the other hand have a diet consisting mainly of fish. It has a thin piece of flesh in the middle of its tongue, when it opens its mouth the piece of flesh looks like a worm, when a hungry fish sees the "worm" it swims by to eat it, the snapping turtle quickly closes its mouth and it eats the meal.
Can live on land
These adaptations
have happened due
to one species of turtles
moving into three different
habitats.
Fun Facts:
Snapping turtles are the largest freshwater turtle in Canada.
They are the most commonly found turtle in Canada.
They are found from Saskatchewan to Nova Scotia.
Baby turtles or tortoises break out of their eggs by using a knob on their head called an egg tooth. It falls off after a few weeks.
FOXES
Similarities:
All foxes
Belong to the same family
Omnivorous
Warm blooded
Bushy tails(Gray fox, Arctic fox)
Long fur(Gray fox, Arctic fox)
Big ears(Gray fox, Fennec fox)
Can't climb trees(Arctic fox, Fennec fox)
Mammals
Differences:
Fennec foxes:
Live in deserts
Short fur
Non-bushy tail
Gray foxes:
Live in forests
Can climb trees
Arctic foxes:
Live in the Arctic
Small ears
Thick insulated fur
Fennec Foxes:
The Fennec fox is a small fox found in the Sahara Desert. Its fur is a sandy colour so that it can blend in with its desert surrounding to protect itself or to help catch its prey. Since its coat is a light sandy colour it helps reflect sunlight during the day and help store heat at night.
The sole of their feet is covered by thick fur to protect them from the hot sand.
Fennec foxes have developed big ears to keep themselves cool by releasing body heat. Their ears also help pick up sounds of small animals in the dark because they are nocturnal.
Since it lives in desert where there is no or very little water they get water from eating berries and leaves.
Gray Foxes:
The Gray fox lives in forests. It has developed strong hooked claws that help it climb trees to help it escape from predators like domestic dogs or coyotes or to reach food on trees. It is the only fox that can climb trees. It gets back to the ground by jumping from branch to branch or by slowly climbing down backwards.
Their coat is gray, white, black and a rusty colour to help them blend into their forest habitat. These colours help them hide from their predators and help ambush their prey while hunting.
Gray foxes have adapted an omnivorous diet, this means that they don't have to depend on one type of food to survive.
Arctic foxes:
The Arctic fox can survive incredibly cold temperatures as low as -50 to -70 degrees Celsius! It stays warm because it has thick fur, it lets air in but doesn't let it get out, it also keeps itself warm by wrapping its bushy tail around.
Arctic foxes are a relatively small species of fox they have a rounded body shape, this helps lessen heat loss because less of its surface area is exposed to the frigid Arctic air.
Their paws are covered with fur to help them walk on the ice to hunt for food.
Despite it's small ears it has really keen hearing and can accurately pinpoint the sound of prey under the thick layer of snow. When it hears its prey it jumps in the air and lands face first.
In the winter the Arctic fox turns pure white and in the spring and summer they turn gray to help them hide from predators or to ambush prey.
Evolution Is...
Genetic change in a population over time. This happens when organisms with genes that are useful for their survival are the ones that are more likely to live longer. These genes are then passed down to their kids, who pass it down on to their kids. The ones who don't have these genes usually don't survive.
Fox Fun Facts:
Scientists in the Czech Republic studied foxes hunt in long vegetation and snow. As they observed that most of the foxes jumped on their prey at a roughly north-eastern position. They found out that 72.5 % of the foxes that faced north-east were successful to catch their prey. The foxes that didn't face north-east weren't as successful, only 15% of them caught prey. Their hypothesis is that foxes use the magnetism of the Earth to help them catch their prey.
If foxes have too much food to eat in one sitting it will bury the leftovers for when it gets hungry again.
Fennec foxes are the smallest foxes in the world
When a fox pounces on it's prey it is called mousing
BIRDS
SNAKES
Gyrfalcon:
Gyrfalcons are the largest falcons in the world. They live in the Arctic tundra where it is freezing cold. To keep warm they have thick feathers. They have white feathers with black spots to blend into their surroundings. A recent study showed that they are the only predatory birds that live on land to make their home sometimes on floating icebergs. They use the icebergs as a headquarters from which they hunt from. They prey on a wide variety of large birds but they usually prefer ptarmigans. Gyrfalcons hunt their prey in a number of ways. One way they hunt is by flying near the ground and then surprising their prey. They also hunt by chasing their prey over long distances and exhausting them. Gyrfalcons like other falcons do not build nests, instead they live in nests that are built by other birds that abandoned them including the Common Raven and the Golden Eagle even though they are a threat to them. Gyrfalcons bathe in melting ice water. Unlike other birds that live in the Arctic the Gyrfalcon does not have an oily coating on its feathers to keep them dry.
American Kestrel:
The American Kestrel can be found in almost any habitat having open areas to hunt and tall places for them to perch. They are the only falcons or hawks that nest in tree cavities and nesting boxes.
It is the smallest falcon found in North America, they are only 7-8 inches long. That is about the size of a Blue Jay. It has a long rusty coloured tail and back and two black vertical stripes on it's face leading from its eyes down to its neck. It has a short hooked bill and short talons.
They hunt by hovering in the air with rapid wing beats or by perching on high branches and powerlines waiting for their prey to come near them. American Kestrels have markings on the back of their head that make them look like that they are looking at their predators and they are ready for them to attack.

Similarities:
All birds of prey
Same family(raptors)
All have talons
All of them are carnivores
Keen eyesight
Hooked bills
Can't hover(Peregrine falcon, Gyrfalcon)
Don't live in the Arctic or on icebergs(Peregrine falcon, American kestrel)
Don't eat bugs and insects(Peregrine falcon, Gyrfalcon)
All have boomerang shaped wings
Don't nest in tree cavities or nest boxes (Peregrine falcon, Gyrfalcon)
Nest on cliffs(Peregrine falcons, Gyrfalcons)
Don't dive to hunt their prey(American kestrels, Gyrfalcons)
Differences:
Gyrfalcons:
Thick feathers
Live in the Arctic
Live on icebergs
White feathers
American Kestrels:
Can hover
Eat bugs and insects
Nest in tree cavities and nest boxes
Peregrine Falcons:
Baffles in their nose
Dive to hunt their prey
Torpedo like body shape
Flying Fish:
If Flying fish are really going to evolve in to real Flying fish like scientists think, here is what I think they are going to look like:
Broad wings
Wings like a bat
Strong breast muscles
Horizontal tail that can open and close like a bird
Sharp eyesight
Duck-like feet with long toes and claws to perch
Start breathing on land but can still breathe in the water
Start flapping their wings
Peregrine Falcon:
Peregrine falcons are found everywhere in the world except the Arctic and Antarctica. They live in cities and areas where there are high cliffs so they can nest in the crevices or abandoned nests.
They are the fastest birds in the world, they can fly at 40-60 mph in level flight but can reach speeds of 200 mph (320 kph) when diving to catch their prey. The fastest speed a Peregrine falcon was ever recorded was 389 kph. How can it fly so fast? It can fly fast because it has powerful chest muscles, a long wingspan and a torpedo like body shape that can cut through the air without much resistance.
Peregrine falcons hunt birds that are a little smaller than them, they paralize their prey by striking them in the back with their feet at 200 mph, the force produced by their incredible speed breaks their victim's back.
When diving through the air at the fastest speeds of any animal on Earth the Peregrine falcon has to be able to breathe, when its diving the fast airflow would stop it from breathing and the air pressure inside the lungs would cause them to explode. To prevent this, they have cone shaped bones in their nostrils called baffles. The baffles control the air intake so that the falcons can breathe safely while hunting. The baffles are so effective that the same designs have been used in jet engines to stop the engines from stalling when they fly at speeds faster than sound. Even with all these amazing weapons the Peregrine falcon has a poor hunting succsess rate of 20%.
Peregrine Falcon
Peregrine falcon diving to hunt prey.
Gyrfalcon
American Kestrel
Common Snapping Turtle
Alligator Snapping Turtle
Fennec Fox
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Thanks For Watching!
Tortoise
Sea Turtle
Lure of an Alligator Snapping Turtle
Gray Fox
Arctic Fox
Flying Fish
"Eyes"
"Eyes"
"Nose"
Full transcript