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Origin and Development of Sociology

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elmer labrada

on 25 April 2014

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Transcript of Origin and Development of Sociology

Origin and Development of Sociology
European Forerunners/Pioneers of Sociology
Claude-Henry de Rouvroy
His idea was that the world could be saved if the scientists would form an international council and take over the direction of the society.

Instead of war and strife, people could turn their attention to generally improve their conditions
Durkheim's four Types of Suicide
Altruistic suicide
- a person feels a deep sense of moral obligation and is willing to place the group's welfare above his/her own survival.
Egoistic suicide
- occurs when the individual feels little connection to the larger society and is not affected by social constraints against self-destructive behavior.
Anomic suicide
- occurs in a time of great social disorder or turmoil.
Fatalistic suicide
- related to the powerlessness that people feel when their lives are regulated by an intolerable extent
American Forerunners/Pioneers of Sociology
Lester Ward
Considered to be the founder of socoilogy in United States and first president of american sociology association.

He criticized
Laissez-faire
theories and Spencer's survival of the fittest theory and developed his own theory of
Social Liberalism
.

Believed that in large, complex, and rapidly growing societies, human freedom could only be achieved with an assistance of a strong, democratic government acting in the interest of the individual
3 Factors that led to the development of Sociology
Industrial Revolution
- refers to the economy of inventions discoveries and industrial development, which works at the place of old traditional economy.

Travel
- the Europeans have been successful in obtaining colonies with different cultures. Startled by these contrasting ways of life, they began to ask questions why culture differed.

Success of Natural Sciences
- the logical discoveries of the laws underlying the social phenomena.
Coined the word sociology and regarded as the father of sociology

Believed that scientific method should be applied to social problems

Viewed that sociology should study both the structure of the organism(social statics) and the organism's processes and forms of change(social dynamics).
Auguste Comte
First woman sociologist

Best known among sociologists for her translation and condensation of Comte's
Positive Philosophy
.

Her legacies revolved around her two books:
"How to Observe Manners and Morals"
and
"Society in America".
Harriet Martineau
English philosopher and considered as second founder of sociology basically because of his publication on the first sociology textbook in 1855 entitled
"Social Statics"
.

Adapted Darwin's theory of evolution to social life-Natural selection leads to
"survival of the fittest"
and would eventually lead to social progress.

Argued that like animals, human societies evolved from simple forms
(primitive societies)
to more complex
(industrial societies).
Herbert Spencer
Considered as one of the two most influential thinkers in Germany.

Argued that the
collective conscience
(community standards of morality), not only confine our behavior but also give us a sense of belonging and integration.

One of his most notable contributions was his
monograph of suicide
in which he looked beyond individual factors as explanations of suicide.
Emile Durkheim
Karl Marx
Concentrated on social conflict.

Together with
Friedrich Engels
, they wrote "The communist Manifesto".

Believed that social change was brought about through "the process of conflict between two opposing classes:class struggle between oppressed and the oppressors.
German economist, historian, and philosopher.

Repeatedly refuted Marx's contention that there is a simple determinant of social changes, such as economic conditions.

Introduced the
Verstehen
method in sociology.
Max Weber
German sociologist; his chief contribution to sociology was his writings
Gemeinschaft
(communal society) and
Gesellschaft
(assocaitional society).
Ferdinand Tonnies
He was an american sociologist and political economist, and studied in Germany, Switzerland and Oxford.

His major work was
Folkways
.

Originated the concept of ethnocentrism.
William Graham Sumner
Believed that self and society could be equated as the same entity-one could not exist, develop, or thrive without the other.

Most important concept was
"looking-glass self"
.
Charles Horton Cooley
George Herbert Mead
American philosopher who introduced
"symbolic interaction"
. According to this perspective, people employ symbols to convey meanings that people attach to their words and actions.
Regarded by many as the 20th century's most influential american sociologist.

Laid the foundation for what was to become the modern functionalist perspective.

Introduced
Structural Functionalism
.
Talcott Parsons
Robert Merton
Expanded Parson's understanding of structural functionalism by explaining not only the function of social structures but also, their dysfunctions, non-functions and net balances called
"middle range"
.

Introduced the concepts of manifest and latent functions.
The Development 0f Sociology in the Philippines
1.) Sociology viewed as a Social Philosophy
In 1896, Sociology was introduced at the
University of Santo Tomas
when
Father Valentin Marin
initiated a course in criminology.

Eleven years later, A.W. Salt introduced a course on Social Ethics in University of the Philippines.
In 1919,
Dr. Clyde Heflin
introduced sociology at Silliman University. Simultaneously, the Theological Seminary also offered sociology courses.
2.) Sociology regarded as a welfare or problem oriented by the Academe
In 1939, Serafin Macaraig, the first filipino to receive a doctorate degree in sociology, published his introduction to scociology which became the first text at UP.

He attempted to Introduce the Scientific view of sociology in 1920 bt with little success since he was using substandard theories.
3.) Sociology was finally treated as a scientific discipline which began in 1950s
This was done by:
increasing the number of scholars and exchange program grantees
establishing social science research center,
growing frequencies on seminars, and
publication of journals.
Sociological Perspective
1.) Evolutionary Theory
Herbert Spencer
Gerhard Lenski
2.) Structural-Functionalist

Theory
Talcott Parsons
3.)Conflict Theory
Karl Marx
4.) Symbolic Interaction Theory
George Herbert Mead
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