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SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES
Transcript of SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES
United States CULTURE AND WORLD
REGION Southeastern United States comprises the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia. CLIMATE: warm winters and hot, humid summers
LANDSCAPE: tree-covered mountain terrain to sandy beaches
ORIGINAL SETTLERS: Native Americans – Apalachee, Catawba, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Lumbee, Santee, Shawnee, and Tuscarora FOOD HISTORY WITHIN CULTURE •Constant diet was corn (sofkee/present day - grits)
•Native Americans grew beans, squash, pumpkins and sunflowers (for the seeds)
•Native American women farmed and gathered nuts, berries and wild plants
•Native American men did most of the hunting and fishing (e.g. deer, bear, squirrel, possum, rabbit and wild turkey)
•Intercropping – planting corns, beans and squash in the same field
•Native Americans used two or three sequential planting each year in order to have fresh corn through late fall. •History of food culture in the southeastern United States begins with the settlement of Virginia.
•Native Americans introduced the Jamestown population to hominy (ripe maize, whole or ground as grits), succotash (fresh or dried maize cooked with beans) and cornpone (a pancake preparation).
•In addition, shad, duck, terrapin and oysters were abundant in Virginia coastal region. Virginia 19th Century
Colonists added home canning to their food preservation methods.
(e.g. tomatoes, beans, beets, peaches, pears and homemade jam, jellies and relishes) Wild Game
•Early settler hunted large game: buffalo, bear, elk, deer and hogs
•Small game: bobcat, fox, possum, rabbit squirrel, turkey, quail and dove
•Lower-quality meat was used to make sausages and stew.
•Brunswick stew (named for Brunswick County, Virginia) is prepared with wild game and a selection of vegetables (tomatoes, potatoes, carrots squash, lima beans and corn).
•First game used in the recipe was squirrel (one squirrel per two persons)
•Served with corn muffins. Domesticated Animals
•Cows, chickens and hogs were farm raised by the early settlers
•1611, first cow was brought from the island of Jersey in England to Jamestown
•Cow provides milk and butter, not often used for meat
•Chicken provides both meat and eggs
•Pork was used to replace mutton
•Red-eye gravy is used to make ham and biscuit breakfast extra speacial
•Good red-eye gravy is made with a generous helping of strong coffee Seafood
•Shrimp, crab, and trout were among the types of seafood eaten by the colonists.
•Trout and Bass are usually found on freshwater areas of Appalachian hills and South Carolina midlands.•Shrimp is abundant in low-country areas of the southeast.
Common seafood dishes
•Crab Cakes used as an appetizer or part of the entrée
•Stews and gumbos (combination of seafood and seasonal vegetables) are steamed in large pots for parties. Dairy Products
•Cows were raised for milk and butter.
•Cheese was made on a few farms in Virginia and North Carolina
•Buttermilk was made from the liquid left from churning butter
•Baking soda and buttermilk were used as leavening agents in biscuits, cakes, and other baked goods
Common dairy dishes•Crumbled corn bread and buttermilk is often a quick breakfast
•Buttermilk biscuits are southern favorites Corn
•Corn or maize, introduced to the settlers by Native Americans
•Suppone (also known as appone or cornpone) was a favorite Indian food.
•Combination of cornmeal, water, grease and salt
•It is the backbone of many contemporary dishes.
•a staple throughout southeast
•variations include corn fritters, hush puppies and Johnny cakes
•farmers use dry corn to make mash for moonshine
•it is an ingredient for a popular pudding Potatoes
•1720s, White potatoes (Irish potatoes), were brought to southeast by Irish and Scottish immigrants
•1800s, German started settling in the western Carolina and made pancakes, soups, salads, and dumplings with white potatoes
Potato soup and Irish stew (lamb or beef)
•Original Irish stew was only meat and potatoes.
•Today’s stew can be described as a thickened vegetable stew
•It is indigenous to North America.
•Cultivated by local Native American tribes prior to the arrival of Europeans.
•Served as an alternative to the white potato.
•Often used in pies, pones and casseroles(might include fruits, spices and heavy cream or yogurt)
•Served with butter, cinnamon, and sugar or syrup Rice
•17th Century, the long-grain white variety, was introduced to the South Carolina low country region
•When slavery ended, the rice industry all but disappeared in the southeast.
•Rice is still cultivated in Arkansas and Louisiana
•Presently, only a small amount of the premium “Carolina Gold” is grown in South Carolina
•White, brown, and wild rice remain favorite side dish in all southeastern states Biscuits
•Beaten biscuits recipe were brought by the early settlers from England, it sometimes called Maryland or Virginia biscuits.
•Unleavened biscuit dough was beaten until enough air bubbles were created to cause the biscuits to rise when cooked.
•South Carolina biscuits is similar to the one for beaten biscuits, except sweet cream is substituted for the water and the dough is kneaded instead of beaten.
•Later biscuits began to be made with baking powder or soda. FAT SOURCES
•Drippings from cooked meats are used to make gravies, to season vegetables or to coat the skillet as it heats.
•Vegetable shortenings, both solid and liquid are also used.
•Butter and lard are used for baking. Beans
•Lima beans, green beans (called snap or string beans in the south), and shell beans; white, navy and black beans were easily grown in the moderate climates In Virginia and the Carolinas.
•Most often beans fresh from garden or market are used in vegetable soups, salads, and as entrees cooked with ham and new potatoes.
•Wild greens are harvested from grassy fields and creek banks.
•Popular types of greens are Pokeweed, Fiddlehead, dandelion, collards, mustard greens, cresses(upland and water), and ramp(wild leeks)
•Some greens are mixed uncooked into cold salads; others are served wilted with a hot dressing
•Cushaw, winter crook-necked squash, pumpkins, zucchini and summer squash were important foods for southeastern Native Americans.
•Besides food uses, Native Americans made bowls, dippers and cups from hollowed-out squashes; Dried strips of pumpkin were used to make sleeping mats.
•Squash and pumpkin are used in breads, pies, salads, and casseroles; other members of the squash family are boiled and served as side dish.
•Tomatoes were brought to North America by early British colonists.
•It was not eaten and used as medicine due to its value for pustule-removing properties
•Tomatoes are eaten fresh from the garden sliced, diced, fried, congealed in aspic, and made into gravy.
•Tomato gravy is made from the pan drippings left after making fried green tomatoes Apples
•Crab apples are the only ones native to North America
•17th century, settlers brought apple seeds, cuttings, and all important honey bees from the British Isles to the early Virginia settlements.
•Harvest times start in July and run until early November depending on the apple variety.
•Apple are used as snacks and as basis of butters, chutneys, jellies, cakes, pies, juices and ciders(fermented apple juice)
Berries and Nuts
•Blackberries are gathered in spring and early summer
•Native Americans crushed strawberries and mixed them with cornbread to make strawberry bread
•It were introduced to the South Carolina coast by Spanish explorers arriving from Cuba in 1575
•Besides being used as a sweetener, it was prized as a diuretic and laxative
•Pecan is a Native American word of Algonquin origin that was used to describe “all nuts requiring a stone to crack.”
•It is used as food source during long winters and a hand travel food
•It is frequently used in desserts and candies
•Beechnuts are eaten raw or used as a substitute for pecans
•Black walnuts are well like in cakes, fudge and cookies for their distinctive flavor SPICES AND SEASONINGS
•Herb gardens – rosemary, thyme, chives, sage, garlic, and onions were the most common
•Salt, pepper, and nutmeg were imported.•Sage, rosemary, celery and mustard seeds were used as natural preservatives.•Herb gardens are used to add flavor to meats, salads and vegetables. BEVERAGES
•Shrubs, syllabubs and juleps are added to punches and the ordinary coffees and teas.
•Shrubs are generally types of spiced teas.
•Syllabubs are coffee-based drinks that include a small amount of liquor
•Juleps are cocktail of sugar, mint and alcohol (mostly bourbon).•Punches are special-occasion beverages•Coffee is preferred hot and black but iced coffee and café au lait are readily available in coastal areas•Hot chocolate is a favorite winter drink•Ginger ale was the most popular soft drink in 20th century DESSERTS
•Desserts such as crystallized fruits and cakes covered with fresh flowers were among the abundant trifles, tarts, sweetmeats, fresh fruit, puddings, cakes, and peaches preserved in bourbon.
•Pudding, pies, and cakes are popular southeastern desserts
•In summer, fresh fruit with shortcake or homemade ice cream with chocolate sauce over pound cake are frequently served. Rural Appalachian Breakfast Items
Fried apples or applesauce
Bacon, sausage or ham
Sausage gravy or red-eye gravy
Fried or scrambled eggs
Oatmeal or cream of wheat
Fresh sliced tomatoes or fried green tomatoes
Fresh butter, hot sorghum, honey jellies and jam
Coffee (usually black) or tea Coastal Breakfast Items
Mixed fresh fruit
Hominy or grits
Fried, scrambled or boiled eggs
Cakes and pastries
Pancakes and waffles
Salmon or fish roe
Coffee with milk or tea Thanksgiving and Other Winter Holidays
Broccoli, pea and tomato soup
Roasted turkey, peppercorn-crusted ham, rosemary lamb chops, pot roast and grilled seafood
Garlic-mashed potatoes, lemon rice and sour cream and-chives mashed potatoes
Sweet potato casserole
Snap peas with red peppers and corn
Green bean casserole or green beans with bacon and onion bits
Asparagus, corn, squash, and glazed carrots
Tossed salad, fruit salads, and Caesar salad
Pumpkin, pecan, and apple pies
Pecan cake, carrot cake, mousse, and cheesecake
Assorted rolls and biscuits
Wines, teas and coffees Thomas Jefferson
-One of the famous gardener
-The third President of the United States (1801 – 1809)
-Situated in Virginia, Monticello.
-He planted vegetables such as peas, cabbage, lettuce, spinach, carrots, as well as snap and lima beans.
-He cultivated fruit and trees: plums, apple, peaches, and walnuts. MAJOR FOODS PROTEIN SOURCES STARCH SOURCES PROMINENT VEGETABLES PROMINENT FRUITS