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Born Criminal Theory
Transcript of Born Criminal Theory
Constitutional Theory - 1940s
constitutional theory suggests that there are three main body types; endomorphic,
and ectomorphic. Each body type was asociated with temperamets and personality traits. sheldon suggested that mesomorphic people who are
The Warrior Gene - 1993
Research into the arrior gene began in 1993 and it is still being researched now. This theory is based on the idea that an individuals
inherited genes predispose
and therefore criminal behaviour. The warrior gene is a variation of the
and has been linked to an
of joining a gang, using
Marxist Theory 1818-1883
Marxists believe that crime is a results of an
defines deviance and crime for
They argue that
crime is widespread
all social strata
, making them seem more common and therefore become recognised as important and a bigger issue than
white collar crimes
which are not focused on as much.
Eyesenck's Criminal Personality Theory 1964
Personality refers to relatively
of a person that make their
across situations. Eyesenck thought the variation in peoples personalities could be reduced to three dimensions; extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism.
: sociable, active, lively and sensation seeking and is deteermined by the level of arousal in the persons nervous system.
anxious, depressed and react stronglyto aversive stimuli. It is also determined by the level of qactivity in a persons nervous system. Low score= stable, high score = instable nervous system.
: agressive, antisocial, cold and egocentric.
Eyesenk argued that people with
high E N and P scores
that make them
hard to condition
. This means they don't learn to respond to antisocial impulses with anxiety, so are more likely to behave antisocially.
Bowlby's Psychodynamic Theory 1951
Bowlby suggested that disruption to a childs
(0-3 years) could result in
This means that the inidivual will have a lack of
and inability to show
to others. His study,
44 Juvenile Thieves
gives evidence for his theory. This resulsts in criminal behaviour because the individuals actions are not controlled by their thoughts of consequences to society or other individuals.
Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory 1856-1939
: develops from abnormal family relationships. It results in a person not having any of he usual i
nhibitions against antiocial behaviour
. They would act in ways that
gratified their id,
regardless of social constraints on doing so.
: A person might develop a superego that is deviant
what it has
same sex parent
. So a boy with a criminal father might develop a superego hat doesn't react to the criminal acts that the father would engage in.
: This would cause a person to feel
permanently anxious and guilty
because the superego would make them feel guilty for acting out on any of the id's desires. This
result in a person commiting crime in order to
anxiety and guilt
they are feeling.
Bandura's Social Learning Theory 1977
Bandura suggested that people learn by
behaviour of others in society. If a
such as a parent, peer or celebrity is seen to gein
pleasure or reinforcement
from criminal behaviour, they they are likely to repeat this behaviour themselves. Similarly, if the role model is
for a behaviour they are unlikely to copy it. This is demonstrated in
copy cat crimes
and in the
for crimes or antisocial behaviour.
in 1859, this theory suggests that people with five or more certain
are born criminals and therefore criminality is due to DNA.
Born Criminal Theory 1859
Social Strain Theory 1940s
encouraged by society, such as the American Dream are
for people. However, if the
prevents people from realising this dream
, then people will
turn to crime
in order to realise it. Others will retreat or drop out into
after feeling that society has nothing to offer for them.
Social Structure Theory 1930s
This theory suggests that neighbourhoods that are
forces of strain
that create crime. The poverty, disorder and general
caused by the crime encourages the
these areas. This means that the most disadvantaged proportions of society are left. WilliamJulius Wilson described this as the poverty
which causes neighbourhoods to be
prone to violence.
Broken Windows Theory 1982
This theory suggests that
such as littering, graffiti, breaking windows,
by attracting crime and deliquent behaviour.
Social Reaction (Labelling) Theory - 1963
This theory was suggested by
. He emphasised the importance of the
that a person recieves when they commit a crime. These labels and the rules that define deviance are
made by the wealthy
, for the
and by ethnic majorities for
The labels are extremely hard to get rid of and can
people from gaining
. Societys label therefore becomes a
self fulfilling prophecy
as the individuals may be forced back into a life of crime.
Interactionism Theory 1960s-1970s
and suggested that the labels society gives to criminals can lead to groups of people being
Young black people
have often expressed that they feel victimised by police. It is suggested that this leads to a
deviancy amplification spiral
. This means that the
with the victimised group and
the group of deviants. For example, in
mods and rockers were heavily policed because of disturbances, which led to more young people joining the mods and rockers out of hatred for the police.
Realism Theories 1960
Left Realists believe that the root
cause of crime is the inequalities
in society and think that vulnerable
people are most likely to be criminals
aswell as victims of crime.
They see strict punishments, stop and
search and police on beat as least effective
and a more equal society, stopping racism,
good community support, rehabilitation
and more employment as better solutions.
Right Realists believe that the cause
of crime is the results of poor socialisation
and a decline in the moral values of
society, Criminals are seen to have chosen
their behaviour and need to be punished
to protect the rest of society..
Their solutions to crime are strict
sentencing, CCTV, lots of police on beat and stop and search. They don't believe that
rehabilitation and community support
are effective solutions.
Feminist Approach to Criminality 1960s-1970s
Feminism has been established since the 19th century, but the feminist school of criminology was established in the 1960s into the 70s. Women felt that criminology was
, with women being disregarded.
This approach suggests that women commit crimes for different reasons to men, and that women shouldn't be generalised in male focused research. There is an
aspect to why women commit crimes for different reasons, They have less
that men, so they carry out less agressive acts. As well as this, females main purpose over time has been to care for her
wheras men have had to
hunt, kill, protect
and be involved in
. It is suggested that these evolutionary differences are reflected in the crimes that men commit and the reasons why they commit them.