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Indonesia Project

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Caroline Cohen

on 10 February 2013

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Transcript of Indonesia Project

Colonization in Indonesia 1945 1946 1947 1598 1641 1741 After a long period of corruption and bankruptcy, the Dutch government took direct control of the Dutch East Indies. The Dutch arrived in Indonesia and conquered Portuguese trading posts. The Dutch captured Malacca, the most important port in the area. The Dutch fought a war with Javanese nobles and Chinese immigrants. The Dutch were victorious and gained greater control of Java. 1782 The Dutch controlled the majority of Java and the Moluccas. 1948 1799 1949 December 1949 1950 August 17th 1818 The Dutch conquered southern Sumatra in a war that lasted seven years. *Independence is official declared with Sukarno as President and Hatta as VP.
*created a constitution however because there is no security force or bureaucracy it is effectively useless. August 17th 1825 President Sukarno dissolves the United States of Indonesia and creates the Unitary Republic of Indonesia Javanese nobles rebelled against Dutch rule. After five years of fighting and over 200,000 casualties, the Dutch quelled the rebellion. 1862 All Java, central Sumatra, and coastal Borneo were under Dutch control. December 27th United States of Indonesia Formed 1873 1920 The Dutch declared war on Aceh, a kingdom in northern Sumatra. The Dutch were humiliated by thirty years of continuous failure to subdue Aceh. However, in 1903, the Dutch were able to capture the kingdom. Guerrilla resistance ended in 1913. The Dutch controlled the present day boundaries of Indonesia. -The Dutch introduced coffee in Java, and, in the 1920s, rubber, oil, and tin.
-They ultimately destroyed the economy of the Indonesians by increasing exports that solely profited the Dutch.
-The Dutch East India Company increased export prices, thus lowering demand, and bankrupting the company.
-The indigenous textile industry was destroyed, as Indonesians were forced to labor on cash crop plantations Indonesian harvest, Java, 1926 Impacts on Indonesian Culture Religion: Islam was spread to Indonesia in the 14th century, and today 87% of Indonesia is Muslim. The dutch did not believe that religion should mix with government, and did not interfere.

Official Language: Indonesian; not influenced by Dutch

Education: The Dutch implemented an "Ethical Policy" in the 1900s. This created medical care, housing, and schools. This eventually educated most people, teaching Enlightenment ideals to Indonesians, leading to rebellion.

Food: Sweet desserts were introduced, such as cakes, biscuits, and puddings. Dutch soldiers standing over massacred Aceh resistance fighters, 1898. http://photoclec.versantus.co.uk/sites/default/files/page_images/1.2.4%20A%20Aceh%20tif%20heavy%20format_0.jpg Dutch conquests in Indonesia by year http://www.marxist.com/images/stories/indonesia/history/Evolution_of_the_Dutch_East_Indies-Red4tribe.png 1901 The Dutch implemented an "Ethical Policy," which created health care, schools, and houses for ordinary Indonesians. While the revolution was made possible by the educated modern elite of Indonesia such as Mohammad Hatta and Sukarno, who were both nationalist leaders, it was driven by the pemuda or javanese youth. The pemuda's radical and independent stance towards independence forced the japanese to promise a semblance of independence before the end of WWII. However all that was crushed with the collapse of the japanese empire. The entire revolution undermined the traditional aristocracy who had helped the dutch during their rule. Japanese takeover + eventual defeat + the beginings of the independence movement
=
almost no power for the dutch.
Only European power was in the hands of the British military aka British Supreme Commander Admiral Lord Louis Mountbattam Economic Boycotts occur as a form of rebellion October Bersiap Period August 1945 December 1946 *A period of extream violence folowing WW2
*August 1945 to December 1946.
*Huge number of people were executed. By a council who mostly killed people who opposed the revolution or were European. July 20th Linggadjati Agreement= treaty between Indonesia and the Dutch to create a union between the two nations
*Rejected by the Dutch
*Dutch then attempted to retakeover the islands through military action known as Operation Product. Because of the Dutch's actions and Operation Product the Un Became involved January The Renville Agreement was signed which created a truce and plebiscite, which allowed the Indonesian people to vote for their independence. *Dutch ended up Blockading Indonesian territory despite the truce.
*To Sway international opinion Hatta and Sukarno allowed themselves to be captured. *After the Capture of Sukarno and Hatta there was a almost complete end to diplomacy on the side of the Indonesian people. Suharto resigned after protests over his brutal rule. Indonesia became a democracy The first nation wide presidential elections were held. http://photos.iofc.org/storage/images/preview/Jakarta_slumlife30.JPG Since Suharto's resignation, Indonesia has been relatively stable politicaly although there has been trouble in recent years with muslim extremism. 1967 General Suharto takes power and turns the Indonesian governtment into a dictatorship. 1998 1999 2006 1999-today An Indonesian child living in a slum of Jakarta, 2006. This shows the poverty faced by many Indonesians. As expected, the Dutch colonizers beat Indonesia in all of these statistics. The affects of being colonized are emphasized by Thailand, one of the only not colonized counties in the region, being better than Indonesia in every category. Indonesian and Dutch Scholars at the opening of a new Dutch Indonesian school, 1924 The Dutch leave Indonesia leaving a power vacuum. Communists, Islamic extemists, and nationalists all wanted to take power. Overview:
. The Dutch created the new ideas of a united Indonesia and a social class system.
. When the Dutch left the upper social class was left empty so Indonesians rushed to fill it.
. Recently radical Islamist movements have started to create problems in Indonesia.
. These Islamic movements were largely created to fight opression under the Dutch and Suharto. *sporadic and Bloody revolution
*Lots of Gorilla Warefare. 1944 September 7th August 23-November 2nd *Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference held in The Hague
*Included the Republic, the Netherlands, and the Dutch-created federal states.
*Agreement was Dutch recognise Indonesian sovereignty over the 'United States of Indonesia *Indonesia payed £4.3 billion *It would include all the territory of the former Dutch East Indies
*Java and Sumatra are a single state of the sixteen-states in the federation but contain 1/2 the population November *Battle of Surabaya, 2nd biggest city in Indonesia, is largest in entire revolution
*fought between Indonesian militia and British and Dutch troops
*Majority of the battle was from November 10- November 26th
*The pemuda had control when 6,000 Indian troops landed in the city
* the British commander, Brigadier A. W. S. Mallaby was killed on October 30th and the British retaliated Capturing the majority of the city in 6 days.
*Thousands of the Indonisians died as they fought for three weeks December 9th The Rawagede Massacre was the killing of 431 men in the village of Rawagede because they wouldn't tell where well known Pemuda leader Lukas Kustario was hiding. Mallaby's burnt out car where he was killed -These colonies were named the Dutch East Indies
-Originally ruled by the Dutch East India Company (indirect rule)
-Monopoly created on spices
-The Company controlled the sea lanes between the islands -Indirect rule allowed the Dutch to control the spice trade
-It did not allow them to control large areas of land
-Local nobles still held some power
-Indonesians continued practicing traditional culture -Under new direct rule, Indonesian peasants were forced to set aside one fifth of their land for cash crops to be exported by the Dutch
-Increased deforestation and a population explosion resulted from a need to meet Dutch quotas
-Most of the population did not rebel
-When rebellions occurred, they were led by nobles
-However, the work by Indonesians that only benefited the Dutch caused much resentment
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