Send the link below via email or IMCopy
Present to your audienceStart remote presentation
- Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
- People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
- This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
- A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
- Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article
SOWK 4132: Disability?
Transcript of SOWK 4132: Disability?
Megan, and Sarah Cognitive
Disabilities Alcoholism Deafness People
of Size Ableism Throughout the early and mid-1800's, the idea of rehabilitation, training, and reintegration of people with intellectual disability (PWID) into "normal" life was pervasive. With urbanization in latter half of 1800s, there came less optimism that PWID would be capable of adapting to industrialization. Along with industrialization came the foundation of the Eugenics movement in 1869 by Sir Frances Galton and others - the foundation of this movement was a belief that medicine interfered with Darwinian natural selection and kept the weak alive. By 1944, 30 states had enacted sterilization laws, and the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the practice in Buck v. Bell (1927). Also, in the late 1800s-early 1900s, there was a practice of segregating PIWD into institutional settings to protect "normal" society from them and to control their reproductive lives; the development of psychological testing also contributed to increased institutionalization. Following the end of World War II, there developed a more supportive attitude toward people in need, and by the 1950s, the social attitude toward PIWD shifted to one with at least some elements of tolerance and compassion. By 1952, 46 states had enacted legislation for educating intellectually disabled children. Over the last four decades, numerous legal protections and services for PWID have been enacted, including the Vocational Rehabilitation Act, Education for All Handicapped Children, UN Standard Rules on Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and the Individuals with Disabilities Act. Most recently, there has been an increased focus on early intervention, community-based rehabilitation, definition and diagnosis, human rights legislation, and deinstitutionalization (Harbour & Malik, 2012). Marginalization: People with cognitive disabilities have been expelled from our system of labor and from participation in social life. 2011 participation rates for the U.S. labor force are 69.7% for those with no disability, but only 20.9% for those with a disability (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012). People with cognitive and other disabilities also live in relative social isolation - among persons living in the community, those with disabilities are twice as likely to live alone and have lower rates of socializing with friends, attending events, food shopping, attending church, or eating out (Kaye, 1998).
Powerlessness: People with cognitive disabilities are stigmatized because of assumed inferior traits or characteristics and perceived inequality with the dominant culture; they experience institutionalized discrimination and pressure from dominant culture to conform to its perceived norms (Smith, 2004).
Cultural Imperialism: Cultural imperialism for cognitive disabilities occurs by a social model of disability, specifically, disability as the process that happens when one group of people create barriers by designing a world only for their way of living, taking no account of the impairments other people have; here, ableist ideology exists as an invisible ideological hegemony deeply embedded in America's collective consciousness (Smith, 2004).
Violence: People with cognitive disabilities experience discomfort, fear, and persecution (Smith, 2004). People with disabilities of all types experience higher rates of violence than those without a disability, and those with a cognitive disability experience even higher rates of violent crime including rape or sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault (U.S. Department of Justice, 2009). Abuse of people with cognitive disabilities by caregivers can include physical, sexual, economic, coercion and threats, caregiver privilege, isolation, witholding or misuse of supports, justifying and blaming abuse on disability, and power and control (Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence, 2009). See also the following video: Media portrayal of people with cognitive disabilities often falls into one of two categories: either characterization as a disability "superhero," or being placed within white middle class mainstream ableist society images and frameworks, in order to be seen as "like us" and thus relatable.
-Development of a culture "that can be differentiated from the dominant culture, in areas that include distinct belief and value systems, as well as humor (Yates, Ortiz, & Andersen, 1998)
-Strong lobbyist associations, such as American Association of People with Disabilities: http://www.aapd.com/
-Disability Rights political movements, working to empower persons with disabilities to take control of their own lives, and to influence social policies and practices to further the integration and full inclusion of individuals with disabilities into American mainstream society (Winter, 2003).
-Development of Disability Art and Culture Programs, with disability art recognized as a genre of creative work that reflects a disability experience in either content or form. See e.g. University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Disability and Human Development Program on Disability Art, Culture, and Humanities: http://www.idhd.org/PDACH.html
-Development of Disability Studies undergraduate and graduate academic programs, see, e.g.:
University of Washington, http://depts.washington.edu/disstud/; UC Berkeley, http://ugis.ls.berkeley.edu/ds/ If those with disabilities take the position that they do not have disabilities (i.e. disability is entirely a social construction), are there any unintended negative impacts of that for this group in terms of its cultural identity? Are there any unintended negative impacts with respect to policy and health or other benefits?
How does this group want to be identified in a way that is empowering to the group identity but that still rejects the social construction of their physicality as being a disability? Existence of Stereotypes & Social/Economic Impact:
-A research study examining how issues of prenatal testing for disabilities are reported in U.S. newspapers concludes that disability is being portrayed as a negative quality for a fetus, in which prenatal testing may be helpful. The primary message is matter-of-fact in terms of disability being an issue with little regard to the controversy embedded in that position. Journalists communicate that disability is problematic, that testing can determine which pregnancies might be affected, and that there is an option to terminate the pregnancy; this supports the assertion that an unborn fetus with a disability is already being discriminated against and treated as defective, and that journalists are representing a point of view that may contribute to readers' beliefs about the value of those with disabilities (Mills & Erzikova, 2012).
-An estimated 23.6 percent of non-institutionalized persons, male or female, with a cognitive disability, ages 21-64, all races, regardless of ethnicity, with all education levels in the United States were employed.
-An estimated 33.7 percent of non-institutionalized persons aged 21 to 64 years with a cognitive disability in the United States were living below the poverty line.
-An estimated 28.7 percent of non-institutionalized persons aged 21 to 64 years with a cognitive disability in the United States had an educational attainment of less than a high school education.
-An estimated 17.0 percent of non-institutionalized persons aged 21 to 64 years with a cognitive disability in the United States were uninsured (Erickson, Lee, & von Schrader, 2012).
In a 2009 USDOJ study, the risk of violence was higher for young and middle-age persons with a disability than those of similar age groups without disabilities. Persons age 12 to 19 and those age 35 to 49 with a disability experienced violence at nearly twice the rate as persons of the same age groups without a disability.
The age-adjusted rate of violent crime against females with a disability was almost twice the rate for females without a disability. Males with a disability also experienced higher age-adjusted rates of violence than males without a disability .
Sixteen percent of violent crimes against females with a disability were committed by an intimate partner, defined as a current or former spouse, boyfriend or girlfriend. Five percent of violence against males with a disability was committed by an intimate partner.
More than half of violent crimes against people with disabilities were against those with more than one type of disability. Persons with cognitive disabilities had a rate of nonfatal violent crime higher than the rates for persons with other types of disabilities (Disabled World News, 2009).
"People with disabilities are denied even basic health care, so that those labeled as having so-called mental retardation have a life expectancy that is as little as two-thirds - or less - that of the total population. And people with disabilities are at significant risk for violence in the form of sexual, physical, mental, emotional, and verbal abuse in their lives" (Smith, 2004, p. 13) The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 12101-12213 (2000) prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in employment (Title I), State and local government (Title II), public accommodations (Title III), commercial facilities, transportation (Title II), and telecommunications (Title IV). It also applies to the United States Congress. To be protected by the ADA, one must have a disability or have a relationship or association with an individual with a disability (see below for definition). "In the 20th and 21st centuries, disability has been understood within a medical paradigm - seen as a 'problem' to be fixed or cured through medical, surgical, or pharmaceutical intervention" (LaCom, 2012, p.57).
"The disease metaphor has been a powerful way of speaking about and creating bodily and cultural difference ... [it is] an essential modernist fear, the fear of filth and dirt. Because Western (White) culture loathes that which is dirty, it creates disability ... as ideological and metaphoric tools to exclude what it perceives as repulsive and revolting" (Smith, 2004, p.11) "More than any other legislation, the ADA articulated and "normalized" a particular understanding of disability in terms than then shaped public discussions of place, access, and ... how and why we define disability as we do" (LaCom, 2012, p.58). "'[W]e displace anxieties about abjection onto people with disabilities as a means of coping with our own corporeal fears and anxieties ...[a]n us/them distinction between ablebodied people and people with disabilities is tenuous - a fall down the stairs, an illness, an automobile accident could collapse that distinction in seconds. In fact, if we live long enough, we will all become disabled (LaCom, 2012, p.60). "Stigmatization and marginalization are each a process which works to exclude persons with impairments from participation in the mainstream of social activities. Each, then is a process which disables people" (Winter, 2003, p. 30). Experiences of Oppression for
People with Cognitive Disabilities Brief History of Cognitive Disability in U.S. Media Portrayal Strengths and Resiliencies for People with Cognitive Disabilities Disability?
Although adverse health effects of poverty have long been recognized, it is only in recent years that racial discrimination has been identified as an important source of stress influencing health and psychological well-being. Both types of social disadvantage: poverty and racial discrimination are thought to contribute to drinking problems in minority groups. Much of the research on alcohol related issues in the United States has been conducted with samples of whites and has ignored the potential influence of cultural factors, such as race and ethnicity. For example, although nationwide household alcohol surveys in the United States have been administered since 1964, the first national alcohol survey with an emphasis on blacks and Hispanics was implemented only in 1984. Since the early 1980s, studies have shown pronounced variation in drinking practices and alcohol related problems that show differences between black, Hispanic, Native American, and white populations. (Caetano, 1998, p. 233) History of Oppression for Alcoholics
•In August 2005, Anheuser-Busch announced the creation of a new vice-presidential post to oversee Hispanic marketing. Additionally, Molson Coors Brewing Company has named a vice president charged with coordinating sales and marketing to Hispanics, and SABMiller's Miller Brewing Company has agreed to a $100-million advertising package over three years with Spanish-language broadcaster Univision Communications Inc. (The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, 2005)
•In 2003 and 2004, 10 alcohol brands spent close to $160 million to advertise on Spanish-language television. (The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, 2005)
•Younger Hispanics are more likely to use English- than Spanish-language media. Most of the alcohol industry's advertising spending is for English-language media. These media are the primary vehicles for exposure of Hispanic youth to alcohol advertising. (The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, 2005) Example of Exploitation of Alcoholics Native American: As with Hispanics and blacks, much of the literature on Native American alcohol consumption has focused on heavy drinking or binge drinking. Many of the discussions are based on the “Firewater Myth,” which suggests that Native Americans are predisposed to heavy alcohol consumption and are unable to control their drinking and their behavior when intoxicated. That myth still persists, and many people, including many Native Americans, still consider heavy binge drinking to be representative of the “Indian way of drinking” (Caetano, 1998, p. 237)
Asian-American: In contrast to Hispanics and blacks, Asian-Americans typically have been considered a “model minority,” with high rates of abstention and low rates of heavy alcohol use. This image most likely results from the fact that few Asian-Americans enter alcoholism treatment. Additionally, there is a lack of research on alcohol consumption patterns among Asian-Americans who might be at risk for alcohol problems, such as refugees and immigrants. (Caetano, 1998, p. 235) Cultural Perceptions of Alcoholics by Race Hispanic: The history of alcohol research among Hispanics in the United States exemplifies the difficulties in studying a heterogeneous minority population. Most analyses have treated Hispanics as a single group. In addition, studies among Hispanics typically have focused on male drinking patterns. These refer to “standard” Hispanic cultural norms that promote male alcohol consumption and female abstention. One traditional explanation for heavy drinking patterns among Hispanic men, particularly Mexican-Americans, is the concept of “exaggerated machismo” (Caetano, 1998, p. 234)
Black: As with Hispanics, much of the discussion on alcohol consumption patterns among blacks has focused on the prevalence of heavy drinking only. Drinking patterns among blacks traditionally have been thought to result from social disorganization such as family and psychological dysfunction. Heavy drinking was considered a dominant characteristic of the “black” way of life, and early sociocultural studies characterized blacks’ attitudes toward alcohol as more permissive and liberal than those of whites (Caetano, 1998, p. 235). Cultural Perceptions of
Alcoholics by Race Cont. Certain ethnic and racial minorities as well as other underserved populations experience more negative consequences of illness and premature death than other groups. These health disparities often affect groups including: Hispanics, Blacks, Native Americans, Rural and economically disadvantaged populations. One dominant theme that has emerged in analyses of drinking patterns among members of various ethnic minorities is the influence of stressors related to social adjustment to the dominant U.S. culture. . (Caetano, 1998, p. 234)
Those stressors include the following:
•Acculturative stress, which is most typically felt by immigrants who are faced with the turmoil of leaving their homeland and adapting to a new society
•Socioeconomic stress, which is often experienced by ethnic minorities who feel disempowered because of inadequate financial resources and limited social class standing
•Minority stress, which refers to the tensions that minorities encounter resulting from racism. (Caetano, 1998, p. 234) Diversity and Health Disparities The medical community is expressing growing concern about racial disparities not only in terms of access to health services but also with respect to the quality and appropriateness of the care received. Analyses of several factors commonly used to define treatment quality strongly suggest that ethnic disparities in the quality of alcohol services exist. To date, few studies have directly examined racial or ethnic disparities in alcoholism treatment quality based on this definition. However, difficulties engaging and retaining minority clients in treatment are often noted by clinicians (Schmidt, 2002).
The time a person spends on a waiting list before being admitted to an alcoholism treatment program is significant. Blacks have been disproportionately reported that they did not enter treatment because of the lengthy waiting period. A multisite clinical trial found that Blacks and Hispanics reported significantly lower satisfaction with alcoholism treatment than Whites. Evidence also suggests that minorities may receive care that is less appropriate to their needs. For example, research on outcomes reveals that minority patients are less likely to receive specialty treatment and multiple episodes of care even though they often have different needs (Schmidt, 2002).
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) defines disability as a “physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of major life events of such an individual.” Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 12101-12213 (2000).
The ADA defines major life events as: caring for oneself, manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning, working
The ADA defines disability as “any physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss affecting one or more of the following body systems: neurological, muscoskeletal, special sense organs, respiratory (including speech organs), cardiovascular, reproductive, digestive, genitourinary, hemic and lymphatic, and endocrine, or any mental or psychological disorder such as mental retardation, organic brain syndrome, emotional or mental illness, and specific learning disabilities.”
Under this definition approximately 41 million people in the U.S. have disabilities. (Kirst-Ashman, K. & Hull, G., 2012) The ADA was passed in response to pervasive discrimination:
inaccessible housing/buildings, denial of employment & educational opportunities, lack of adequate transportation, etc.
stereotyping as unemployable, difficult, incompetent
should be segregated from “normal population”
However all this legislation has not change reality that those with disabilities are still discriminated against and are significantly underemployed:
those with severe disabilities have a 26% rate of employment
those with a mental illness are half as likely to be employed
those with a cane, walker or crutches are employed 27% of the time
those in a wheelchair 22% of the time
those with work related disability, less than 1/3 reenter the workforce
the largest group of workers with disabilities (25%) work in machine operation, food service and sale
1% are employed as computer scientists, librarians, counselors, pharmacist, lawyers, judges, physicians, dentists, and firefighters (combined) Are there differences
in quality of care? •In the three largest population groups, the rates of clinically significant alcohol problems tend to be highest among Hispanic and White men and lowest among Hispanic women. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2010)
•Hispanic men have by far the highest rates of experiencing three or more alcohol problems, these rates are higher for Black men than white men. In contrast, three or more alcohol episodes are higher in White women than for Black or Hispanic women. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2010)
•Symptoms of alcohol dependencies remain more stable over time among Hispanic men and both Hispanic and Black men are more susceptible to White in developing new problems with dependence. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2010)
•Co-occurring disorders are higher in Black and Latino men. For example, they experience a higher prevalence rate of both domestic violence and cirrhosis of the liver. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2010) More Facts Strengths and Resiliencies Media Portrayals Statistics There are 22 million people in the U.S. who are
deaf or hard of hearing
2 million are profoundly deaf (can't hear anything) or severely deaf (unable to hear much)
2-3 of every 1,000 children are born deaf, 17 of every 1,000 children experience hearing loss
9 out of 10 are born to hearing parents
40% of all people in the U.S. will experience hearing loss in their lifetime Definitions Alcoholics Anonymous:
Millions of men and women have heard or read about Alcoholics Anonymous since its founding in 1935. Of these, more than 2,000,000 now call themselves members. People who once drank to excess, they finally acknowledged that they could not handle alcohol, and now live a new way of life without it. (Alcoholics Anonymous, 2010)
Mission Statement: Alcoholics Anonymous is a fellowship of men and women who share their experience, strength and hope with each other that they may solve their common problem and help others to recover from alcoholism. The only requirement for membership is a desire to stop drinking. There are no dues or fees for A.A. membership; we are self-supporting through our own contributions. A.A. is not allied with any sect, denomination, politics, organization or institution; does not wish to engage in any controversy; neither endorses nor opposes any causes. Our primary purpose is to stay sober and help other alcoholics to achieve sobriety. (Alcoholics Anonymous, 2010)
Alcoholics Anonymous can also be defined as an informal society of more than 2,000,000 recovered alcoholics in the United States, Canada, and other countries. These men and women meet in local groups, which range in size from a handful in some localities to many hundreds in larger communities. Currently, women make up 35 percent of the total membership. (Alcoholics Anonymous, 2010)
Limited research shows that treatment can help Hispanics who speak English and who are highly acculturated to American life. Nevertheless, Hispanics with severe alcohol problems are less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to seek the treatment they need. Hispanics also are less likely to join Alcoholics Anonymous, even though AA groups are available for free and in Spanish. (Alcoholics Anonymous, 2010)
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA):
The (NIAAA) provides leadership to the alcohol research community by directing, supporting, and conducting biomedical and behavioral research on the causes, consequences, treatment, and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems. The Institute conducts its programs primarily by supporting research grants, contracts, and training awards at colleges, universities, and other public and private research institutions nationwide. The mission of the NIAAA research is to address health disparities among racial and ethnic minorities, rural and economically disadvantaged populations. The research is mostly into the causes and consequences of alcohol-use disorders and to develop treatment and prevention strategies to reduce them. (NIAAA, 2010) deaf with a small "d": refers to the medical condition of hearing loss
Deaf with a capital "D": refers to the cultural the group (i.e. the Deaf community)
"It is used in the same way that people who belong to a national, cultural or religious
group would describe themselves, for example as French or Muslim. It is for this reason that many Deaf people do not define themselves as disabled, rather they describe themselves as belonging to a cultural or linguistic minority" (The Open University, 2006)
A person who is...
HARD OF HEARING: refers to people with a range of hearing loss
PRE-LINGUALLY DEAF: refers to someone born severely or profoundly deaf
LATE DEAFENDED: A person born hearing who later became severely or profoundly deaf.
CODA (Child of a Deaf Adult): refers to a hearing child of a deaf parent
HEARING: someone who does not experience hearing loss The History of Deaf Culture & Deaf Culture ASL, English, & Everything in Between The Controversy Audism & the Oppression of people who are Deaf Oralism vs. Manualism Learn More Art: Deaf Culture in Television Signs in Pop Music Marginalization: People who are deaf experience marginalization every day when hearing society fails to accommodate for the diversity of deafness. Most particularly children find themselves excluded to "special education" and adults have few options for viable employment; Many say that nearly 90% of people who are deaf are unemployed or severely underemployed.
Powerlessness: Dominant hearing society has historically decided how people who are deaf should be educated & live their lives; Many deaf adults experienced being denied the use of their native language, ASL; The majority of children who are deaf undergo surgery for CIs without ever getting to weigh in on this important decision that will affect the rest of their lives; When society assumes everyone is hearing, it often puts deaf individuals in situations of powerlessness (e.g. According to HEARD-Helping Educate to Advance the Rights of the Deaf: ""The failure of police officers, attorneys, and other legal professionals to provide interpreters or other communication accommodations has led to wrongful convictions of Deaf and hard of hearing individuals" (http://www.dosomething.org/)
Cultural Imperialism: Deaf individuals live in an audist society that privileges hearing & speaking individuals; Hearing society is largely unaware of & uninterested in Deaf Society; Those who are deaf are seen as the "other" and those who are unable (or choose not) to speak are seen as inferior or even dumb; those who are deaf & speaking are bullied for not speaking like a hearing person; Most deaf children grow up without ever encountering role models in a variety of careers, celebrities, or characters on T.V. or in books that are like them
Violence: Many deaf adults faced physical and emotional trauma in school (e.g. forbidden to use ASL, slapped repeatedly with a ruler if they used ASL; Police brutality against deaf people, when they are assumed to be hearing & do not respond to officer's demands; Some would say that the implantation of CIs in children & experimental treatments on infants constitutes violence; Many would say the scientific aim to eliminate deafness should be likened to cultural genocide Experience of Oppression History of Sizism Obesity: Is fat a disease? Obesity Statistics in the United States Media Portrayals and
Stereotypes Fat Acceptance Movement Fat as a Feminist Issue "Weird Al" Yankovic Music Video "Fat" "Ricky Gervais on Fat People" Fat Girl
Meme Reflections Disability as a Social Justice Issue "The primary issues faced by disabled individuals are not only their specific impairments but also the social stigma, reduced access to resources and poverty that limit their full potential" (Groce, 2006, p. 146). Disability Oppression How is disability defined? What does the Americans with Disabilities Act cover? Disability as a Social Construction Fear of Becoming Disabled: Permeability of Category Medicalization Continued Discrimination Statistics Evidencing Discrimination and Oppression of People with Cognitive Disabilities Regarding the group of"disability," it seems to be defined almost entirely by social construct, i.e. only by external definitions of ableism and the world being designed to work for some people and not others. Is there really such a thing as disability at all? Does disability exist only in the sense of one group's lived experience of having to fit into another group's design of spaces, information, etc., rather than anything innate to the person with a disability? Does it have these aspects in common with race (in the sense that there is no biological basis for race, but nevertheless it is a lived experience)? The Centers for Disease Control defines overweight and obesity by a comparison between height and weight and the calculation of body mass index (BMI). An adult who has a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight whereas an adult who has a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese. Popular notion has been that the heavier one is the likelihood of early death increases.
Yet studies have shown that health is possible at every size. In a study conducted by UC Davis investigators found “that severely obese people were 1.26 times more likely to die during follow-up than people in the normal weight group. However, if people with diabetes or hypertension were eliminated from the data, those who were overweight, obese or even severely obese had similar or even lower death rates than people of normal weight. Consistent with a number of prior studies, underweight people were nearly twice as likely to die than people with normal weight, regardless of whether diabetes or hypertension was present” (University of California – Davis Health Systems, 2012). Fat is often associated with:
- inactive lifestyles
- being unhealthy
- being ugly "By state, obesity prevalence ranged from 20.7% in Colorado to 34.9% in Mississippi in 2011. No state had a prevalence of obesity less than 20%. 39 states had a prevalence of 25% or more; 12 of these states had a prevalence of 30% or more: Alabama, Arkansas, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Texas, and West Virginia.
The South had the highest prevalence of obesity (29.5%), followed by the Midwest (29.0%), the Northeast (25.3%) and the West (24.3%)" (Centers for Disease Control, 2012). Size discrimination occurs through marginalization and cultural imperialism. It creates medical and psychological effects, results in wage disparity, affects hiring and promotion, and affects academic options and advancement. Health at Every Size This occurs because society sanctions overt expression of bias in social situations and through mass media regarding size. Thinness is seen as desirable and perpetuates societal messages that obesity is equal to failure as a person. It places blame on the victim ignores contributing environmental factors (NAAFA, 2011). Education Experience:
- 1 of 3 overweight girls and 1 of 4 over-weight boys report being teased by peers at school.
- Among the heaviest young people it is 3 of 5.
- Peers see obese children as undesirable playmates who are lazy, stupid, ugly, mean, and unhappy
- Negative attitudes are experienced as early as pre-school and may increase from there
- Obese elementary school children miss more days of school
- Obese adolescent girls are less likely to attend college
- Students who were obese at age 16 had fewer years of education
- Bias creates vulnerability to depression, low self-esteem, poor body image, and suicidal thoughts
- Weight-based teasing makes increases likelihood of unhealthy eating patterns and avoidance of physical activity (NAAFA, 2011). According to a 2007 study of >2800 Americans the likelihood of reporting weight-based employment discrimination compared to "normal" weight adults was:
- 12 times more likely for overweight adults were.
- 37 times more likely for obese persons.
- 100 times more likely for severely obese adults.
- 27% of women report employment discrimination.
- 43% of overweight people report weight bias from employers and supervisors.
- Some companies are planning to regularly charge overweight employees unless they meet standards for weight, cholesterol, and blood pressure
Consequences to Overweight people:
- Earn 1-6% less than non-overweight people in comparable positions
- Women also face gender disparity, getting fewer promotions
- May be viewed as underachievers by employers and co-workers
- 54% of report they had been stigmatized by co-workers
- Face dismissal or suspension because of their weight, despite good performance and weight being unrelated to responsibilities
- May be penalized for weight, through company benefits programs
- May not be hired
- May be the target of derogatory comments/jokes by employers and co-workers (NAAFA, 2011). Workplace Healthcare In a study of 400 doctors:
- 1 out of 3 listed obesity as a condition to which they respond negatively, ranked behind only drug addiction, alcoholism, and mental illness.
- Obesity was associated with noncompliance, hostility, dishonesty, and poor hygiene.
- Self-report studies show that doctors view obese patients as lazy, lacking in self-control, non-compliant, unintelligent, weak-willed, and dishonest
- Psychologists ascribe more pathology, more negative and severe symptoms, and worse prognosis to obese patients compared to thinner patients presenting identical psychological profiles
In a survey of 2,449 overweight and obese women:- 69%experienced bias from doctors- 52% experienced recurring incidents of bias
In one survey of nurses:- 31% said they would prefer not to care for obese patients
- 24% said that obese patients “repulsed them”
- 12% said they would prefer not to touch obese patients
- Avoidance of proper care
- Reluctant to seek medical care
- Cancellation or delay of medical appointments
- Delay important preventative healthcare
- Doctors seeing overweight patients
- Spend less time with patient
- Engage in less discussion
- Show reluctance to perform preventive health screenings (i.e., pelvic exams, cancer screenings, mammograms)
- Do less intervention
Appropriate-sized medical equipment Not Available:
- MRIs- Blood pressure cuffs- Patient gowns (NAAFA, 2011). Switched at Birth is a new ABC family drama that decided to make a drama about two families of
teenagers that discover their daughters were switched at birth in the hospital, even more compelling
by deciding to have one of the teens be deaf. Learn more about this exciting new drama below! Learn about the inspiration for making a drama that would expose audiences to
Deaf culture; Actor Sean Berdy discusses what it was like to see a television
program that reflected his life experiences for the first time. Learn about the casting of hard of hearing actors for Switched at Birth;
Each brings their own unique experience to the program. Learn about the authenticity of the program as it represents Deaf Culture & ASL; This
clip also discusses how hearing cast & crew have learned how tonality & nuances of
language are still very much portrayed through sign. Perspectives from the cast & crew about working a set where two languages
are being used simultaneously: ASL & English Already Hooked? Go to http://www.hulu.com/switched-at-birth to watch
Season 1 for free. I recommend Episodes 12 & 13. These two episodes expose hearing audiences to many parts of Deaf Culture the average person has most likely never encountered before, such as:
How a doorbell can ring without sound
The complexities of a relationship between one deaf and one hearing teen
What it feels like to be arrested when you can't see or hear the police or when a basketball team recruits you in order to get money
The complexity of emotion that can be displayed through sign
The intergenerational differences between growing up deaf now and 30 years ago.
Take some time to watch these two episodes and I promise you will learn a lot! Switched at Birth includes weekly ASL lessons from both deaf and hearing
actors! Check out this one and learn to sign "Nice to see you!" Oppression is Centered around Education "Give Me Your Hand" by The Ready Set Nancy Rourke is a local artist & activist, who makes powerful De'VIE art (Deaf View / Deaf Imagine), a movement of Deaf Art started by 8 Deaf Artists in 1989. From her own personal experience she paints powerful images around three themes: Resistance, Affirmation and Liberation. Take some time to explore her Art below: "We all have a deaf heart" Resistance Affirmation Liberation "Language Contact" 2011 Read about Nancy Rourke's journey and explore more of her incredibly moving art on her website: http://www.nancyrourke.com (each piece includes descriptions by the artist). Her work is currently
on display at the Access Gallery at 909 Santa Fe Dr. Learn more about the
Access Gallery here: http://accessgallery.org There was once a time that being fat meant wealth, health and beauty. However in the 20th century medical notions of obesity began to gain traction as infectious diseases were no longer as much of a threat. Research linking obesity to health risks came out of the end of the 20th century (ASDH, 2011).
Acknowledgement of sizism and fat studies is also a very recent occurrence and has in part of come out of the feminist movement. As research began discussing size to a greater extent attention was drawn to the gendered notion of weight and weight loss ideals, connecting social constraints to the experience of size in society (Fikkan & Rothblum, 2011). "Liberation Tree," 2011 Health at Every Size comes from the Association for Size Diversity and Health. In recognizing that there is scientific evidence which establishes that obesity is not the considerable health risk it was previously reported to be and that weight loss programs are not effective at improving health and often can cause more individual harm, they promote healthy behaviors and attitudes for all body types.
The Health At Every Size principles are:
- Accepting and respecting the diversity of body shapes and sizes
- Recognizing that health and well-being are multi-dimensional and that they include physical, social, spiritual, occupational, emotional and intellectual aspects
- Promoting all aspects of health and well-being for people of all sizes
- Promoting eating in a manner which balances individual nutritional needs, hunger, satiety, appetite, and pleasure
- Promoting individually appropriate, enjoyable, life-enhancing physical activity, rather than exercise that is focused on the goal of weight loss (ASDH, 2011). Statistics Deaf Film Robyn Girard is a filmmaker, designer, & animator, who uses visual storytelling to connect both deaf and hearing audiences. Her project "101 Things That Unite and Divide" was a favorite at SXSW in March 2011 and brings attention to the ways film tends to perpetuate stereotypes. Girard uses visual storytelling to to change perceptions hearing people have about Deaf Culture. "'It's our job,"' says Girard, 'to prove that deaf people are not silent.' In other words, not being able to hear doesn't mean they can't make some noise in the culture" (Knapp, 2011). In the interview below, Girard discusses her project and the challenge of working with two languages (ASL & Engligh) for two different audiences (dead & hearing). Experience Girard's project "101 Things that United and Divide" for yourself on her website:
http://www.robyngirard.com I recommend "Fish Cultural Identification,"
"The Cheeseburger Story," & "Conversations with Doctors" "Ethnic Deaf" 2011 "Valli's Dandelions" 2011 "Love Hands" 2010 "Friends in Deafhood" 2010 "See, Hear, Speak No Deaf" 2011 "Language Deprivation" 2012 "Sign Language Human Right" 2012. Quote by Dr. Roz Rosen. "I am a Deaf Survivor" 2012 "The Crying Father" 2012. Deaf father cries because his son was given a cochlear implant. 1760 - Abbe Charles-Michel de l'Épée of Paris, considered the "father of the deaf" founded the first public school for the deaf. Many children
learned sign language and met other deaf children and adults fr he first time. School uses a variety of practices including sign language, finger
spelling, French noun spelling, reading, & writing.
1760 - French Sign Language established.
1778 - Samuel Heinicke of Leipzig, Germany, started teaching deaf children predominately with oral/aural methods
1817 - American School for the Deaf, first deaf school in America, founded. Education & literacy based in sign language. Employed deaf teachers.
Early to mid 1800s - Considered the "Golder Age" of Deaf Culture. The use of sign language spread & was well respected in education.
1864 - Columbia Institution for the Deaf (now Gallaudet University) founded In Washington DC. The first deaf university to offer higher education.
1872 - Alexander Graham Bell opens his first school for the deaf, promoting deaf education based in oral skills (speech-reading, speech) & discouraging
the use of of sign language. Bell was associated with the eugenics movement in the U.S. and is credited by many with wanting to eliminate deafness from the
Mid to late 1800s - "Oralism" on the rise. Sign language ("Manualism") condemned
Turn of the Century- 40% of deaf students taught without sign language
End of WWI - 80% of deaf students taught without sign language
Mid to late 1900s - Sign language reemerges in deaf education
1960s & 1970s - Emergence of Total Communication Model (integrating signing with oral, auditory, visual, and written educational models)
1975 t0 the Present - New trend to "mainstream" deaf children with the passing of the Equal Education for All Handicapped Children Act, which stated that
education must be provided in the "least restrictive or most normal environment" possible. Mainstreaming has led to a decline in Deaf Schools and some say
Deaf Culture, leading to the emergence of new debate similar to the Oralism vs. Manualism debate 100 years earlier; Mainstreaming has also been made
possible by cochlear implants (CIs), which more than half of children born deaf now receive. The divide deepens between those who see CIs as a
"revolutionary" technology allowing the deaf to hear (and therefore assimilate into hearing culture) and those who see CIs as part of the "medicalization"
of deafness and a new eugenics seeking to eliminate the existence of people who are deaf.
2012 - First FDA-Approved Study using Stem Cells to treat Hearing Loss in at Children’s Memorial Hermann Hospital in Houston, Texas
Source: American School for the Deaf: A History of Deaf Education in America (http://www.asd-1817.org/page.cfm?p=430), Bayton, Douglas (1992)
Historically saw ASL & Deaf Culture as an isolating for the deaf population & threatening to mainstream society
ASL prevents people who are deaf from being able to communicate normally & participate in mainstream society
Oral practices as progress (Sign language no longer necessary)
A.G. Bell says "forget you are deaf"
Deafness is a disability but it can be fixed
Accepts new medical technology that improves the lives of people who are deaf (e.g. hearing aids & cochlear implants)
Promotes early diagnosis & intervention for children who are deaf
The goal is to teach deaf children to listen & speak
People born deaf can fully assimilate into mainstream culture & no longer have to live marginalized lives
Oralists say hearing parents like this model Hearing loss affects more people than you'd think, right? Test your hearing online at "Hear the World": http://www.hear-the-world.com/en/hearing-and-hearing-loss/online-hearing-test.html American Sign Language/Bilingual-Bicultural:
"American Sign Language (ASL) is a manual communication language taught as a child's primary language, with English taught as a second language. American Sign Language uses hand symbols and gestures combined with facial expressions to communicate language. American Sign Language is recognized as a true language in its own right and does not follow the grammatical structure of English."
Listening and Spoken Language:
This approach to language development requires that infants and young children with hearing loss are taught to listen and talk with the support hearing technology, such as hearing aids or cochlear implants. Parents and caregivers are supported in their role as the child’s most important teacher of language, and the goal is for the child to attend mainstream schools."
"Cued Speech is a visual communication system that can be used to demonstrate phonetic information for children who may not be able to learn entirely though amplified hearing. Designed to enhance lipreading ability, Cued Speech combines the natural mouth movements of speech with eight hand shapes (cues) that represent different sounds of speech."
"Total Communication uses a combination of methods to teach a child, including a form of sign language, finger spelling, speech reading, speaking and amplification. The sign systems used in Total Communication are typically based in English word order and follow English grammatical structure, and do not represent a separate language as with American Sign Language."
Source: Listening and Spoken Language Knowledge Center (http://www.listeningandspokenlanguage.org/Document.aspx?id=144) Disability represents a socially constructed geography, and as a social construction results in the stereotyped perceptions of qualities "inherent" in people with disabilities (Smith, 2004).
"A foundational argument in disability studies is that disability is a cultural construct and that knowledge about disability is socially produced" (LaCom, 2012, p. 56) Deaf Culturalists believe deafness is simply diversity and not a disability. Deaf culturalists identify as being part of a language minority; Sign-language being their native language and English being their second language. They advocate for greater acceptance of deafness and more exposure to the Deaf experience by mainstream hearing society. They promote Deaf Culture as well as a greater interaction between hearing and deaf persons. They stand up against AUDISM & the long history of oppression of people who are deaf and advocate for a society that accepts & respects deafness as a way of life (as opposed to trying to fix or eliminate it), accommodates for people who are deaf (e.g. using new technology, interpreters), & where more hearing people learn & use sign-language. National Association of the Deaf: http://www.nad.org
American School for the Deaf: http://www.asd-1817.org
Listening & Spoken Language Knowledge Center (A.G. Bell Association): http://www.listeningandspokenlanguage.org/Default.aspx
Cochlear Implants, The Debate: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/soundandfury/cochlear/debate.html
Cochlear Implants Redefine What It Means To Be Deaf: http://www.npr.org/2012/04/08/150245885/cochlear-implants-redefine-what-it-means-to-be-deaf
This American Life Episode 411: First Contact: Ira Glass interviews Scott Krepel about when Scott got cochlear implants at age 11 and heard sound for the first time (Scott eventually chose to stop using the implants: http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/411/first-contact?act=0#play
FDA Approved study using stem cell research to treat hearing loss. Watch a video: http://www.multivu.com/mnr/53686-cord-blood-childrens-memorial-hermann-fda-approved-stem-cells-hearing-loss Children who are deaf naturally develop their own sign language
Sign language is the native language of people who are deaf and learn English as their second language
People who are deaf can communicate faster & more comfortably in sign language
See Oralism as a sign from the "dark ages" when children were punished (often physically) for using sign & were taught to hear & speak with their hands tied behind them or while sitting on their hands
Elimination of ASL education marginalizes deaf teachers and denies deaf children the exposure to deaf role model & their right to participate in Deaf Culture
Children who are mainstreamed experience more isolation & barriers to full participation in school (e.g. clubs, sports, social interaction with peers)
Oral methods are not right for every child with hearing loss & sets some up for failure
People need to understand that ASL is an important part of helping a child reach their full potential
Accept new technology that increase non-verbal communication opportunities for people who are Deaf (e.g. texting, video
Use of interpreters, speech-reading, & writing to communicate
with hearing individuals Real Life Stories The Case of Martha's Vineyard suggests an alternative AUDISM is the belief that the hearing & speaking way of life is better, which leads to the oppression of people who are deaf or hard of hearing. Audism is expressed overtly & passively in mainstream society. References The National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance (NAAFA) is a non-profit, all volunteer, civil rights organization dedicated to protecting the rights and improving the quality of life for fat people. NAAFA works to eliminate discrimination based on body size and provide fat people with the tools for self-empowerment through advocacy, public education, and support. They envision a society in which people of every size are accepted with dignity and equality in all aspects of life and work to eliminate discrimination based on body size and provide fat people with the tools for self-empowerment though public education, advocacy, and support (NAAFA, 2011).
Fat Acceptance groups and events have also arisen around the United States as a place for body positive social interaction. In Portland, OR “Jellyroll” is a body positive and size friendly dance night and in Colorado there used to be a Fat Acceptance Society which held social events and organized around issues of sizism. "Whether or not they had an immediate family member who could not hear, everyone spoke sign language. Therefore, the people who were deaf were not "disabled" in that society in the way they would be ours. In fact, when surviving hearing community members were asked by the researcher if a particular deceased individual was disabled, they said no at first, and then remembered that the person had injured his hand permanently, so yes, he was disabled. But the elderly people Groce interviewed who were part of that Martha's Vineyard community did not categorize the community members who were deaf as 'disabled.' They were considered part of what was considered normal in that community. And because everyone spoke sign language, these individuals' could communicate equally well with everyone." (Patricia A. Dunn and Kathleen Dunn De Mers: http://www.technorhetoric.net/7.1/coverweb/dunn_demers/spokesl.htm) The original settlers of the isolated island community of Martha's Vineyard carried a
gene for deafness so that overtime more and more people were born with hearing loss, until nearly 1 in 4 children were born deaf. Residents developed their own sign language, Martha's Vineyard Sign Language (MVSL), which everyone learned. MVSL later merged with other sign languages to create American Sign Language. (Berke, 2012) "Defying the Odds:" Veronica was diagnosed late but is now headed to college "One parent, two kids with hearing loss:" For Suzy the goal was always that her two daughters would be mainstreamed "Hearing Mommy For the First Time:" 2 yr old Cooper hears sound for the first time after receiving his cochlear implants "Not only has it been considered justifiable to treat disabled people unequally, but the concept of disability has been used to justify discrimination against other groups by attributing disability to them" (Baynton, 2006) "As Groce points out in her book, Everyone Here Spoke Sign Language: Hereditary Deafness on Martha's Vineyard:
. . . the fact that a society could adjust to disabled individuals, rather than requiring them to do all the adjusting, as is the case in American society as
a whole, raises important questions about the rights of the disabled and the responsibilities of those who are not. The Martha's Vineyard experience suggests strongly that the concept of a handicap is an arbitrary social category. And if it is a question of definition, rather than a universal given, perhaps it can be redefined, and many of the cultural preconceptions summarized in the term "handicapped," as it is now used, eliminated.
The most important lesson to be learned from Martha's Vineyard is that disabled people can be full and useful members of a community if the
community makes an effort to include them. The society must be willing to change slightly to adapt to all. (108)." (Patricia A. Dunn and
Kathleen Dunn De Mers) Feminism has focused upon the effects media and society have had upon women's body image and women's oppression. "Helping women to see their private struggles with compulsive eating and hatred of their bodies as rooted in the social constraints placed on women’s autonomy and patriarchal devaluation of all things feminine (including fat bodies)" has expanded a field of fat acceptance and the social constructionism of bodies (Fikkan & Rothblum, 2011, p. 575). (Kirst-Ashman, K. & Hull, G., 2012) Ableism is "the belief in the natural physical and mental superiority of nondisabled people and the prejudice and discriminatory behavior that arise as a result of this belief" (Groch, 1998, p. 151). Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 12101-12213 (2000).
Alcoholics Anonymous. (2010). A.A. General Conference Approved Material. New York: A.A World Services Inc.
Andreassen, T. A. (2012). Disability as an asset?: Reflections on employment patters in the health and social care sector. Disability Studies Quarterly, 32(3). Retrieved from
Association for Size Diversity and Health (2011). Health at every size fact sheet. Retrieved from https://www.sizediversityandhealth.org/content.asp?id=161.
Baynton, D. (2006). A Silent Exile on Earth: The Metaphorical Construction of Deafness in the 19th century. The Disability Studies Reader (2nd ed., pp. 33-48). New York, New York:
Braverman, M. (Creator) (1989-1993). Corky Fights the Power [Television series episode]. In Life Goes On. Retrieved from
Brennan, I, Falchuk, B., and Murphy, R. (2012). Glee Episode – Season 3 [Television series episode]. In R. Murphy, B. Falchuk, I. Brennan, D. Lorento, Glee, New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (2012). Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey. Retrieved from http://data.bls.gov/pdq/SurveyOutputServlet.
Caetano, R. (1998). Alcohol Consumption Among Ethnic Minorities. Alcohol Health & Research World, 333-242.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Adult obesity fact. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html.
Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (2005). Hispanic Youth and Alcohol Advertising. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Crime Statistics Disabilities (n.d.). Retrieved
Disabled World News (2009). Persons with disabilities experienced higher rates of violence than persons of similar ages without disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.disabled-
Erickson, W., Lee, C., von Schrader, S. (2012). Disability Statistics from the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS). Cornell University Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability
Demographics and Statistics (StatsRRTC). Ithaca, NY. Retrieved from www.disabilitystatistics.org.
Fikkan J. L., & Rothblum E. D. (2011). Is fat a feminist issue? Exploring the gendered nature of weight bias. Journal of Sex Roles, 66, 575-592.
Harbour C.K. & Maulik P. K. (2012). History of Intellectual Disability. In J. H. Stone, M. Blouin (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Rehabilitation. Retrieved from
Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. § 1400 (2004).
Kaye, H. S. (1998). Is the status of people with disabilities improving? U.S. Department of Education Disabilities Statistics Abstract, n21, May 1998. Retrieved from
Kirst-Ashman, K. & Hull, G. (2012). Understanding generalist practice. (6th ed.) Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.
LaCom, C. (2012). Ableist Colonizations. In S. O. Pinder (Ed.), American multicultural studies: diversity of race, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality (pp. 53-68). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage
Mills, C. B. & Erzikova, E. (2012). Prenatal Testing, Disability, and Termination: An Examination of Newspaper Framing. Disability Studies Quarterly, 32(3). Retrieved http://dsq-
National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance (2011). We come in all sizes. Retrieved from http://www.naafaonline.com/dev2/index.html.
National Down Syndrome Congress (2009). We’re More Alike Than Different Campaign. Retrieved from
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use and alcohol use disorders in the United States: Main findings from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and
Related Conditions (NESARC). Bethesda, MD, National Institutes of Health, 2006.
Rose, M. L. (2006). "Deaf and Dumb in Ancient Greece". The Disability Studies Reader (2nd ed., pp. 17-32). New York, New York: Routledge.
Smith, P. (2004). Whiteness, normal theory, and disability studies. Disability Studies Quarterly, 24(2). Retrieved from http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/491/668.
Smith, M. E. G., & Campbell, P. (1997). Discourses on deafness: Social Policy and the Communicative Habilitation of the Deaf. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 22(4), 437.
Tucker, B. P. (1997). The ADA and Deaf Culture: Contrasting Precepts, Conflicting Results. Annals of the American Academy of Political & Social Science, 549, 24.
Special Olympics Great Britain (n.d.). Special Olympics Encourage Omar. Retrieved from
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-41, HHS Publication
No. (SMA) 11-4658. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011
U.S. Department of Justice (2009). Special report: National Crime Victimization Survey: Crime against people with disabilities, 2007. October 2009, NCJ 227814. Retrieved from
U.S. Department of Labor (2012). Economic news release: Table A-6, employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted. Retrieved from
University of California Berkeley Disability Studies Program, http://ugis.ls.berkeley.edu/ds/.
University of California - Davis Health System (2012, July 6). Above-normal weight alone does not necessarily increase short-term risk of death, U.S. data suggest. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October
20, 2012, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/07/120706234749.htm
University of Chicago at Illinois Department of Disability and Human Development, http://www.idhd.org/PDACH.html.
University of Washington Disability Studies Program, http://depts.washington.edu/disstud/.
Winter, J. A. (2003). The development of the disability rights movement as a social problem solver. Disability Studies Quarterly, 23(1), 33-61. Retrieved from http://dsq-
Wisconsin Coaltion Against Domestic Violence (n.d.) Abuse of People with Developmental Disabilities by a Caregiver, Retrieved from http://www.fris.org/Resources/PDFs-
Youth, C. o. (2005). Hispanic Youth and Alcohol Advertising. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Members of the Deaf Community see deafness as another part of the diversity of the human and not as a disability. Immersing myself in Deaf Culture (the activism, art, film, literature) completely changed my view on deafness. As a lover of language and different cultures, I found ASL so engaging and the culture so unique! Once I started looking at deafness this way, I began to think about other types of people our society sees as disability. What would our world look like if we removed this term and accepted what society calls disability or illness as another aspect of human diversity? What is we lived in a society where we eagerly accommodated for these differences (e.g. learning sign language, using more visual instead of auditory cues) instead of spending so much energy trying to "fix" and "change" people? What would this world look like? From proponents of oralist practices I think it is important to recognize the privilege we have when going into these cultural spaces. Is it really okay for me to go there? As a person who is of society's average concept of size I think it is important to validate closed spaces for certain cultural communities like fat acceptance. Are we engaging in cultural