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My Cell Project
Transcript of My Cell Project
- Cells are the basic unit of life
- All existing cells arose from already pre-existing cells Cell Theory Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic Mitosis: A single cell divides into two cells, each containing the same chromosome content and genetic material as the original cell.
Meiosis: A parent cell divides into two daughter cells, each with half the chromosome number as the original cell.
Binary Division: A type of division specific to prokaryotes. The cell replicates it's gentic code and attaches both sets to opposite ends of the membrane. The cell then pulls apart into two exactly identical cell. Cell Division Organelles are cell structures that perform a
specific function within the cell. There are no membrane bound organelles found in prokaryotic cells Organelles No organized nucleus (nucleoid region)
DNA is single, looped
No membrane-bound organelles
Divides by binary fission
Size 1-10 m
Ex: Bacteria and Archaebacteria Organized, membrane-bound nucleus
DNA is in individual strands
Has membrane-bound organelles
Divides by mitosis/meiosis
Size 10-100 µm
Uni- or multicellular
Ex: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists Have DNA / RNA and Ribosomes
Surrounded by membrane
Same basic metabolism
Can have cell walls Membrane:
Animal cells have a cell membrane that allows the cell to move freely
Animal cells sometimes have this to move around easier
Animal cells break down sugar down into CO2 for energy Cell Wall:
Only plant cells use cell walls for support
Plant cells use chloroplasts to make CO2 into sugar for energy
Also determines the color of the plant
Plant cells' vacuoles are much bigger than animal cells and are largely used to store water Both of these cells are Eukaryotic Animal vs. Plant - Nucleus
- Nuclear Membrane
- Endoplasmic Reticulum
- Golgi Apparatus
- Lysosome - Cytoskeleton
- Cell Wall
- Cell Membrane
- Phospholipid By-Layer
- Protein Channels Nucleous The membrane bound "brain" of a cell that controls all of the cells functions. Nuclear Membrane The membrane encloses and
protects the nucleous from the rest of the cell. Nucleolus A small dense spherical structure in the nucleus of a cell during interphase. Chromatin The material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria are composed. Mitochondrion A membrane enclosed organelle known as the "powerhouse" of the cell. The areas are sites of cellular respiration. Cristae Matrix The internal compartments formed by the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. They are studded with proteins, including ATP synthase and a variety of cytochromes. A specific part of the mitochondrion that is the site of oxidation of organic molecules. Cytoplasm The gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane —and the organelles including the nucleus. All of the contents of the cells of prokaryote organisms are contained within the cytoplasm. Endoplasmic Reticulum An organelle of cells in eukaryotic organisms that forms an interconnected network of membrane vesicles. Consists of smooth and rough bits. Smooth Rough Has functions in several metabolic processes. It synthesizes lipids, phospholipids and steroids.Also carries out the metabolism of carbohydrates, drug detoxification, attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins, and steroid metabolism The surface is studded with protein-manufacturing ribosomes giving it a "rough" appearance. However, the ribosomes bound to it at any one time are not a stable part of this organelle's structure as they are constantly being bound and released from the membrane. Membrane-bound vesicles shuttle proteins between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Ribosomes Serves as the primary site of biological protein synthesis. Ribosomes link amino acids together in the order specified by messenger RNA molecules. Golgi Apparatus Packages proteins inside the cell before they are sent to their destination; it is particularly important in the processing of proteins for secretion. Vacuole A membrane-bound organelle which are essentially enclosed compartments which are filled with water containing molecules including enzymes in solution, though in certain cases they may contain solids which have been engulfed. Lysosome Cellular organelles that contain acid hydrolase enzymes that break down waste materials and cellular debris. Cytoskeleton A cellular scaffolding or skeleton contained within a cell's cytoplasm. It forms structures such as flagella, cilia and lamellipodia and plays important roles in both intracellular transport (the movement of vesicles and organelles, for example) and cellular division. Microfilaments Microtubules The thinnest filaments of the cytoskeleton. These linear polymers of actin subunits are flexible and relatively strong, resisting buckling by multi-piconewton compressive forces and filament fracture by nanonewton tensile forces. A component of the cytoskeleton. These tubular polymers of tubulin can grow as long as 25 micrometres and are highly dynamic. They make up the internal structure of cilia and flagella.They also provide platforms for intracellular transport. Centriole Cilia Flagella Plastids Chloroplast Stroma Grana Leukoplast Chromoplast Cell Membrane Phospholipid By-Layer Protein Channels Cell Wall A cylinder shaped cell structure found in most eukaryotic cells. The walls of each centriole are usually composed of nine triplets of microtubules. Are involved in the organization of the mitotic spindle and in the completion of cytokinesis. Cilia are slender protuberances that project from the much larger cell body. These are used for the movement of the cells. Long, whip-like projections used for the movement of the cell, similar to cilia but in far less quantities. Major organelles found in the cells of plants and algae. Plastids are responsible for photosynthesis, and for the storage of products like starch and for the synthesis of many classes of molecules such as fatty acids and terpenes Organelles found in plant cells and some other euk. organisms. Their functions include conducting photosynthesis. They carry out all fatty acid synthesis in plants, and are involved in a plant's immune response. The internal space enclosed by the plastid double membrane but excluding the thylakoid space. This space, filled with a colorless hydrophilic matrix. Resembles stacks of disks and join granum stacks together as a single functional compartment. They are non-pigmented, in contrast to other plastids such as the chloroplast. May become specialized for bulk storage of starch, lipid or protein but in many cells Leukoplasts are present to provide a wide range of biosynthetic functions, including synthesis of fatty acids, many amino acids, and tetrapyrrole compounds. They are heterogeneous organelles responsible for pigment synthesis and storage in specific photosynthetic eukaryotes. A biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. The membrane is selectively permeable and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells. The function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. A thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules. These membranes are flat sheets that form a continuous barrier around cells. The lipid bilayer is the barrier that keeps ions, proteins and other molecules where they are needed and prevents them from diffusing into areas where they should not be. These are trans-membrane proteins found in the phospholipid bilayer membranes in our bodies. These channel proteins allow specific molecules/ions to pass through, thus crossing the membrane. It's the tough, usually flexible but sometimes fairly rigid layer that surrounds plant cells. It's located outside the cell membrane and provides these cells with structural support and protection, in addition to acting as a filtering mechanism. A major function of the cell wall is to act as a pressure vessel, preventing over-expansion when water enters the cell. Mitosis Meiosis Binary Fission All Pictures Were Found On Google Images