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Mapping the School to Prison Pipeline

Forward Change Consulting
by

Tia Martinez

on 7 October 2015

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Transcript of Mapping the School to Prison Pipeline

Children of incarcerated parents – especially boys -
more likely to display “externalizing behavior”

Out of School Suspension
Juvenile incarceration
increases school disengagement and the probability of dropout by 13 percentage points
Felony conviction and incarceration in prison
Residential instability, unemployment and untreated health problems
increases probability of recidivism

Legal discrimination
increases probability of

low earnings, housing instability, and untreated heatlh problems

Decrease in supervised learning time
contributes to falling academically behind (2x likely to be retained) and disengagement from school (2x as likely to drop out)
Since 1972 the probability of being suspended during the school year doubled for Latinos and nearly tripled for African Americans
Increase in
unsupervised time in poor, racially segregated neighborhoods leads to
increased exposure to "order maintenance" policing +
community
violence
Leads to increase in chance of arrest

and
3x risk of contact with juvenile justice system
Upon release from prison,
felon status makes all the outlawed old forms of discrimination legal

Dropping out of high school
doubles to quadruples the probability of going to prison
Juvenile detention increases
probability of adult incarceration by 22 percentage points
From 1970 to 2010 the number of people in prison increased by 430%
School to Prison/Immigrant Detention Pipeline
12-18
19-24
24 and up
Two decades after release from prison,
75% remain in the bottom 20% of the income distribution
Stalled social mobility means
disadvantage passes to their children
Children of incarcerated parents – especially boys -
more likely to display “externalizing behavior”

School
Police
Juvenile Justice
Jail
Prison
Felony Record
Detention and deportation
80% of people arrested have a substance abuse issue, 50% of people incarcerated have a mental health problem
Each additional year in prison produces a 2-year decline in life expectancy

Dropping out of high school is associated with a 9 year decline in life expectancy
Black male dropouts in California face a 90% chance of going to prison over their lifetime
Intergenerational
Since 1996, immigrant detention hs increased by 500%

88% of individuals detained and deported from California under the Secure Communities program were men of color, the vast majority Latino
Having a parent who is incarcerated, suffering from mental illness and/or substance abuse = Adverse Childhood Experience (ACES) associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality as adults
Out of School Suspension
Juvenile incarceration
increases school disengagement and the probability of dropout by 13 percentage points
Felony conviction and incarceration in prison
Residential instability, unemployment and untreated health problems
increases probability of recidivism

Legal discrimination
increases probability of

low earnings, housing instability, and untreated heatlh problems

Decrease in supervised learning time
contributes to falling academically behind (2x likely to be retained) and disengagement from school (2x as likely to drop out)
Since 1972 the probability of being suspended during the school year doubled for Latinos and nearly tripled for African Americans
Increase in
unsupervised time in poor, racially segregated neighborhoods leads to
increased exposure to broken windows policing +
community
violence
Leads to increase in chance of arrest

and
3x risk of contact with juvenile justice system
Upon release from prison,
felon status makes all the outlawed old forms of discrimination legal

Dropping out of high school
doubles to quadruples the probability of going to prison
Juvenile detention increases
probability of adult incarceration by 22 percentage points
From 1970 to 2010 the number of people in prison increased by 430%
School to Prison/Immigrant Detention Pipeline
12-18
19-24
24 and up
Two decades after release from prison,
75% remain in the bottom 20% of the income distribution
Stalled social mobility means
disadvantage passes to their children
School
Police
Juvenile Justice
Jail
Prison
Felony Record
Detention and deportation
Intergenerational
Since 1996, immigrant detention hs increased by 500%

Having a parent who is incarcerated, suffering from mental illness and/or substance abuse = Adverse Childhood Experience (ACES) associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality as adults
Expand juvenile re-entry services that reconnect young men to school
Expand opportunities for disconnected youth to reconnect to school and work
Close youth prisons and limit direct file eligibility
Expand opportunities for retrospective record clearing and "certificates of rehabilitation"
Remove restrictions on receipt of public benefits; "ban the box" for public employment
Expand re-entry supports inc. access to subsidized employment, housing and substance abuse and mental health treatment; reform parole
Reallocate resources away from criminal justice and into health, education, housing and jobs

Expand trauma-informed pediatric care and provide intergenerational healing supports
Reform school discipline and stop school push out
Expand school based health centers, full service community schools, and trauma-informed care
Change policing practices and expand youth development and employment opportunities
Expand diversion and restorative justice in JJ and CJ system; Reduce reliance on school police
Reform draconian sentencing guidelines, repeal tough-on-crime statutes, and reclassify non-violent felonies as misdemeanors
Reform immigration policies, limit local law enforcements' role in immigration control
Leverage ACA/Medicaid to expand health coverage; screen for ACEs and provide trauma-informed care
Reform school discipline and end school push out
Transform school climate, build social emotional health, integrate career prep
Having a parent who is incarcerated, suffering from mental illness and/or substance abuse = Adverse Childhood Experience (ACES) associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality as adults
80% of people arrested have a substance abuse issue, 50% of people incarcerated have a mental health problem
Each additional year in prison produces a 2-year decline in life expectancy
Full transcript