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Chapter 8: Early Civilizations of Africa

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Joseph Floyd

on 19 October 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 8: Early Civilizations of Africa

Kush
Axum
First Farmers
Ca. 8000 BCE people in Nubia began domesticating cattle, sheep and goats, growing millet, sorghum
Domestication spread across the Sahara, then a grassland
After 3000 BCE, drying-up of Sahara, people migrate to Nile river, grasslands (savannah)
Swahili City States
Ghana Empire
Mali Empire
Great Zimbabwe
Early Trans-Saharan Trade
Southern Africa
The second largest continent in area and population, Africa has played a more important role in World History than was previously believed
Kingdom of Kush independent from Egypt by 1070 BCE
Largely Egyptian in culture, built 255 pyramids
Source of gold, ebony, ivory
Kush conquers Egypt, Pharaohs from 760-650 BCE
In 581 capital moved to Meroe, iron ore deposits
Rainy season, millet, sorghum, cattle herding beyond Nile floodplain
Axum emerged in Ethiopian highlands ca. 100 CE
Semitic language (Amharic)
Claimed origins in Saba (Yemen)
Ivory, incense, slaves exported from Adulis, Axum invades Nubia in 350 CE
King Ezana (r.320-350) converts to Coptic (Egyptian) Christianity
Kings of Axum claim descent from King Solomon, through Queen of Saba
Ethiopian Christians believe the Ark of the Convent is housed in Axum
Carthage dominated North Africa
Destroyed in 156 BCE, refounded as Roman city
Garamantes in Libyan Desert (500 BCE-500 CE) built underground irrigation canals, traded salt, gold, gems, slaves for grain, glass, iron
Berbers, possibly ancestors of Tuaregs
Arabian camel introduced 1st centuries CE
Garamantes kingdom collapses due to drying up of Sahara, fall of Western Roman Empire
Nok Culture
Emerged in middle Niger River, Nigera ca.1000 BCE, vanished by 300 CE
Iron-smelting furnaces, among the worlds oldest
First West African sculpture
Yoruba people are probably descendents
Bantu Migrations
Beginning 2000 BCE, Bantu-speakers migrate south to settle Congo River, African Great Lakes
Adopt cattle, iron tools, settle grasslands of southern Africa in early centuries CE
Non-centralized societies, matrilineal (descent from mother) kinship groups
Madagascar
Malays from Borneo, Indonesia reach Madagascar by 1st century CE
Settle in highlands, grow rice, Bantus settle coasts
Rice, yams, bananas spread to African mainland
Soninke unite to resist Berber raids
Ghana emerges 400 CE, 'land of gold'
Arabs, Berbers trade salt, iron, horses
Soninke kings (Ghana) tax caravan trade, tribute from vassal kings
Merchants convert to Islam, kings rely on Muslim officials
After 1074, weakened by wars with Almoravid Berbers, loss of control over Saharan trade
Mali Empire founded by Malinke mansa (chief) Sundiata Kieta in 1235
Ruled Senegal, Niger river valleys, gold-fields, market towns
Kings, court officials, nobles, traders were Muslims, farmers, herders, fisherman, people of the goldfields followed traditional religion
Mansa Musa (r.1312-1337) spread Islam, financed new mosques, made pilgrimage to Mecca
Mali declines in 1400s, due to revolts, Berber raids, Songhai gains control of trans-Saharan trade
Manuscripts on astronomy and mathematics, Library of Timbuktu
Djenne, market city of the gold trade
Taghaza salt mine
Slaves in salt mines, Niger
West African kingdoms
Empire of Kanem in Lake Chad, founded by Muslim dynasty in 1070
Participated in trans-Saharan trade, export slaves, ivory, kola nuts, ostrich feathers
Seven Hausa kingdoms (northern Nigeria), centers of trade, cloth, leather-making
Muslim traders settle, Hausa convert to Islam by 1300
City-states in forests zone centers of trade, pilgrimage
Nri-Igbo in Niger delta, Yoruba Ife, Oyo famous for bronze sculptures
Akan kingdom of Bonoman (modern Ghana), source of gold
Ife, Oyo 1400s
Benin, 1600s
In 960, exiled Persian prince founds Sultanate of Kilwa
Intermarriage of Arabs, Persians, Bantus, spread of Islam creates Swahili (coastal) culture
Exports gold, ivory, rhino horn, timber, slaves, imports Arabian books, swords, Indian cloth, Chinese porcelain, spices from Indonesia
Trade with non-Muslim Bantus, religious wars to capture slaves
'Africa has no history'
G.W.F. Hegel
Nilotic Migrations
Nilotic-speaking cattle-herders migrate from upper Nile to Great Lakes, East Africa fleeing Arab-Egyptian slave raids
In some areas, Nilotic elite ruled Bantu farmers, Tutsi, Hutu in Rwanda
Chapter 8: Early Civilizations of Africa
In parts of southern Africa, Bantu villages united into kingdoms
First was Mapangubwe 1030-1200
Kingdom of Zimbabwe founded ca.1220
Controlled trade with Swahili Coast
Royal Palace (Zimbabwe) made from stones fitted without mortar
Indian jewelry, Chinese porcelain, Arab coins
Suffered famine, drought, abandoned ca.1450
Mapangubwe, on the border between South Africa-Zimbabwe
Mansa Musa amazed the world with his wealth during his 1324-25 pilgrimage to Mecca
Grasslands and deserts of Southern Africa home to Khoisan foragers
As Bantus migrated south, Khoisans adopt livestock, intermarriage (Xhosa, Tswana)
San (Bushmen) in Kalahari continue to live by hunting and gathering
Khoi cattle-herders in Cape of Good Hope
Congo Basin
In 1300s, Luba emerges in a source of the Congo river
Lived on lake shores, traded palm oil, dried fish, iron, copper
Kongo founded ca. 1375 on mouth of the Congo river
Controls Pool Malebo, center of river trade
After contacts with Portuguese, manikongo (king of Kongo) converts to Christianity in 1485, becomes King João I
Luba thrones
Priest in Kongo, 1740
Twa (Pygmies)
Coming of Islam
African Religion before Islam
African religions were animist, gods identified with nature
Belief in afterlife connected with ancestors and lineage groups
Clans preform rituals to honor spirits of ancestors
Muslim Conquests
Arab Muslims conquer Egypt in 641, Egypt remains Christian gradual adoption of Islam
Conquest of Carthage in 690, wars with Berbers, by 711 Muslims reach Morocco, invade Spain
How did the Islam impact sub-Saharan Africa?
Islam and the Growth of Trade
Berbers convert to Islam, spread of camel, trade across the Sahara
Gold to Mediterranean and Middle East, salt to tropical West Africa
Indian Ocean trade grows after 650 with Abbasid Caliphate
Arab, Persian traders introduce dhow (triangle-sail ship)
Islam spreads through trade, migration, conversion, first by merchants, later by kings
Gold fields and caravan routes
African Culture
Sub-Saharan Africa known for wood carvings, metal sculpture
'Primitive' African art influenced modern art
Public architecture ranges from pyramids of Egypt to mud mosques of Mali and stone palaces of Zimbabwe
Rich traditions of oral literature, performed by bards or storytellers, ex. West African griots
African music features strong rhythms, call and response, interplay of voice, instrument, ex. talking drum
Dan Mask, Liberia
Djenne Mosque, Mali
Griot playing kora
African Society
African kings power limited by merchants
Cities began as walled villages, most Africans live in rural areas
Most African societies were matrilineal
Relationships between men and women relatively informal, Islam introduces separate spheres
Slaves were the chief form of property, Arab slave trade with Africa before coming of Europeans
Swahili wedding party
Slave market, Yemen, 1200
Christian Kingdoms in Africa
Christian Nubia
Ethiopia
Axum a Christian island in Muslim sea
Zagwe dynasty after 1150, extends Christianity throughout what is now known as Ethiopia
In 1250, Lalibela orders churches hewn from rock
Somalis, Afars convert to Islam
After 1450, wars with Adal Sultanate, cut off from Red Sea
Sultanate of Mogadishu
Trading empire founded 900
Persian, Arab merchants
Islam spreads among Somali tribes
Source of frankincense, ivory, leather, leopard skins
Somali sailors found colony in Sofala, Mozambique, trade for gold
West Africa and the Sudanic Empires
Is it cool to rap about gold if I told the world I copped it from Ghana and Mali
East Africa and Indian Ocean trade
Almoravids and Almohads
Islamic movements among Berbers tribes
Almoravid Saharan Berbers, conquer empire from Spain to Senegal River, new capital Marrakesh
Almohads, Islamic movement of Atlas mountains, in 1147 conquers Marrakesh, establish Caliphate
Defeats by Christians in Spain, Arab Bedouin migration into North Africa led to collapse by 1269
Great gate of Marrakesh
Almohad gold coin
Atlas Mountains
Atlas Tamazight Berber
Orixa Iemanja, Bahia, Brazil
Virgin of Regla (Yemaya), Cuba
Indian Ocean Trade Before Islam
Predictable monsoon winds made sailing easy
Ancient Egyptians sailed to Horn of Africa
Greek sea-captain from Alexandria, Egypt describes East Africa from Axum to Azania in 1st century CE
Azania home to Bantus, Arabian traders
Nubians convert to Orthodox Christianity after 500
Makuria defeats two Muslim invasions, 641, 652
'Golden Age' from 750-1150, trade with Shi'ite Fatimids in Egypt
Raids by Bedouin Arabs, conquered by Egyptian Mamluks in 1276
St. Peter and Nubian Bishop
Ruins of Makuria
Joseph Floyd
Chiwara Mask, Mali
Sankore Mosque, Timbuktu
Pharaohs of the Nubian Dynasty
Obelisk of Ezana
Axum Cathedral
Ruins of Garama
Chariot Races
Garamantes prisoners, Roman Libya
Nok sculpture
Kikuyu dance, Kenya
Bantu migrations
Igbo medicine man
Dhow, Mozambique
Tuareg Berber
Mali archery and cavalry
Kanem warriors
Hausa coronation
Nri-Igbo bronze, ca. 1200
Church of St. George, Lalibela
Lighthouse, coral-stone home, Mogadishu
Coral mosque, Kilwa
Mawlid festival, Swahili Coast
Swahili women
Kilwa Masoko
Church M'Banza-Kongo, early 1500s
Pool Malebo, Congo River
Conclusion
Africa played a more important role in world history than previously believed
Ancient civilizations, early Christian kingdoms in Nubia and Ethiopia
Bantus settle sub-Saharan Africa
Islamic conquests, growth of trans-Saharan, Indian Ocean trade
Afro-Islamic civilizations in Mali, Swahili Coast
Centralized societies in southern Africa emerge in 1000s
San hunters
Khoi preparing to move, 1805
Himba girl, Namibia
Sarah Baartmaan "Hottentot Venus" (1789-1815)
Great Zimbabwe
"Ring Shout," coastal Georgia
Masaai herders, Kenya-Tanzania
Racial hierarchies, colonial Rwanda
Tuareg man leading camel caravan
Mandinka marabout, 1800s
Cave paintings, Tassili n'Ajjer, Algeria
Pyamids of Meroe
Kush and Egypt
Malgasay children
Islamic expansion
Ghana Empire, Soninke King
Epic of Sundiata
Swahili music, Tanzania
Dhows off the Swahili coast
Indian Ocean trade
Buganda royal tomb
Centralized Bantu kingdoms of Bunyoro, Buganda emerge in Uganda in 1400s
Bananas primary food
Claim descent from semi-legendery Chwezi dynasty
Tuareg women do not wear veils
Mali Empire, 1300s
Muwanda Mutebi, Kabaka (king) of Buganda
Bantu tribes in Namib desert abandoned agriculture and concentrated on cattle-herding
Himba woman milking cow
Miriam Makeba, South Africa, Khawuleza (1966)
Twa hunter-gatherers live near or in agricultural villages
Djenne from the Niger River
Arab Bedouins migrated into North Africa in 1000s-1100s
Arabization of Sudan, Maghreb (Northwest Africa)
Sufi Muslim religious teachers (marabouts) spread Islam in West Africa
The king adorns himself with female ornaments around the neck and arms. On his head he warns gold-embroidered caps covered with turbans of the finest cotton. He gives audience to people for redressing of grievances in a hut around which are placed 10 horses covered in gold cloth. Behind him stand 10 slaves carrying shields and swords mounted with gold. On his right are sons of vassal kings, their heads plaited with gold and wearing costly garments. On the ground around him are seated his ministers, whilst the governor of the city sits before him. On guard at the door are dogs of fine pedigree, wearing collars adorned with gold and silver.
The royal audience is announced by the beating of a drum, called daba, made out of a long piece of hollowed-out wood. When the people have gathered, his co-religionists draw near upon his knees sprinkling dust upon their heads as a sign of respect, while Muslims clap hands as their form of greeting.
Audience before King of Ghana
Fela Kuti-Teacher Don't Teach Me Nonsense
Zulu Kingdom emerged under Shaka (1816-28)
Full transcript