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GroupTwo Swinburne

on 16 November 2016

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Transcript of Egypt

Classical Antiquity
Middle Ages
Ancient Egypt
Early Modern
History.com, A+E Networks (2015)
Tamara Butters
Angus Craddock
Humaira Ali
Elaine Roberts
Amy Kilpatrick
Ancient Egyptians believed gods, demons and spirits played a key role in diseases, whereby doctors would use natural remedies, and prayer to heal those infected (medicalnewstoday, 2015). In turn, doctors would record their findings and treatments (medicalnewsotday, 2015).
Ancient Egypt had four distinct scripts in their writing (Touregypt, 2015), they were called ‘mdju netjer’ - words of the gods (Touregypt, 2015). Hieroglyphic inscription can be seen in columns or horizontal lines, and are often read from right to left (Touregypt, 2015).
Ancient Egyptians loved their land, and believed there was no better place on earth (Mark, 2015). Religion was a part of everyday life, and personal hygiene and appearance was of significant importance (Mark, 2015).
Ancient Egypt
3100BC - 332BC
Loprieno (2004), states that language in Egypt changed only slightly from the ancient times to classic antiquity. The actual speech changed style, showing no dialect changes until much later where various words from the interaction with foreign neighbours through trade were included (Loprieno, 2004).

During this time, Egyptians lived a very leisurely lifestyle which allowed them to develop their cultural activities such as: music, religious festivities, and board games such as ‘Senet’ and ‘Mehen’ (Manuelian 1998).
Government revolved heavily around a single figure, the Pharaoh, who the people believed to be a living god. This status granted the pharaoh virtually limitless power and control over his subjects. (Alan B. Lloyd 2000)
The Middle Ages started with the expansion of the Islamic Empire into Egypt (Metz, 1990). The first rulers in the era was the Arab dynasty followed by the Fatimids, Ayyubids and Mamluks (Metz, 1990). The Fatimids increased income through better farming methods (Kalin & Beliaev, 1979).
Al-Azhar Mosque (Stanley, 2013)
Al Rifa'i Mosque (Strzelecki, n.d)
As Islam spread the Egyptians engaged in the expansion of the Arabic culture (Ginzburg & Plater, 1979). Al-Azhar mosque was built in 970AD, it is the oldest and largest Islamic University in the world (Torky, n.d). There was great advancement in Islamic art and architecture (Ginzburg & Plater, 1979).
The first Egyptian hospital was built in Cairo in 872AD (Smith, 2011). The Ayyubids invested in academic research in medicine (Ali, 1996), and there was a surge in writing medical manuals (Ragab, 2009).
Medicine of this era consisted of natural ingredients such as plants (Nordqvist, 2012).

In 1952, Modern Egypt's leader Nassar, led the revolution towards Independence (Countrystudies, n.d.), and in turn, Egypt became a republic in 1953 (Peasron Education, 2014). Egypt's national flag represents each three stages of this revolution designating red, white and black (Our-egypt, 2012) to represent the before, during, and aftermath of the revolution.(Our-egypt, 2012).
Modern Egypt’s official language is Arabic which has been spoken for over 13 centuries (Egypt Tourism, 2015). There are modern changes to this language including the phrases and the order the words are placed in a sentence, as well as being more flexible and simpler (kwintessential, 2015).
The Eye, (Ishaq, 1200)
History.com, A+E Networks (2015)
Medicine in Egypt had excellent reputation as they had good knowledge of human anatomy and practiced several forms of surgery. This included the mummification process, where the brain is removed through the nose, and the organs through a small incision near the groin. (Horatius Plinio Prioreschi, 1996)
History.com, A+E Networks (2015)
History.com, A+E Networks (2015)
History.com, A+E Networks (2015)
History.com, A+E Networks (2015)
History.com, A+E Networks (2015)
By the credible information gathered to produce this presentation, we can conclude that, Egyptians were years ahead of their time with medical practices and human autonomy. Throughout history Egyptian language and government have been influenced by invaders. However, Egyptians were able to maintain their values and culture which are still being practiced today. The current republication political scene is a far cry from the times of the pharaohs and has been developed through its long and colorful history.
Physicians around the world were intrigued by Egyptian medical practices. Peri-ankh, "the house of life", was established and used to teach these practices (Shuttleworth,2010).Heat therapy and physiotherapy were introduced to treat aches and pains upon various other practices (Shuttleworth, 2010).
The following presentation is a credible source of information; the information gathered and represented to conduct the presentation was used in alignment with Metzger's framework (2007). Group two ensured each source was:
thoroughly cross examined using the framework
scanned sources for current information
author credentials
external links
facts based information
complete and professional
Using this checklist, our group prepared this presentation with factual and credible information.
Egyptian society has transformed as the modern era has evolved. In Ancient Egypt, leadership was the major influence upon culture. Throughout history the Egyptian Government has influenced language, communication methods, medical practices and lifestyle. The following presentation breaks down the different stages of iconic Egyptian history into the modern era.
Durning the early modern ear the Ottoman Empire expanded into Egypt (Smitha, n.d). The Egyptians revolted against the Turkish (Tour Egypt , 2010), and Mamluks Ali Bah attacked Arabia and Syria because of the growing economical hardship. Egypt was then made into an independent state.
Although Egyptian culture had been influenced throughout the early modern era by invaders, the egyptian civilization were able to maintain their deep routed values and traditions (Eternal Egypt, 2005), family values being the most significant influence along side honor (Kwintenssial, 2014).

The Middle Ages began with both Arabic and Coptic languages being spoken (Thompson, 2013). Eventually a new dialect of Arabic developed in Cairo differing from the language of the incoming Arabs (Thompson, 2013). Over time the Coptic language was replaced with the new Egyptian Arabic (Thompson, 2013).
Early Modern Egypt
Sultan Hassan Mosque Cairo, 1356
Modern Architecture in Cairo, Egypt (Flickr, n.d.)
A typical Ancient Egypt banquet scene (Journey to Ancient Egypt, 2009).
The Ebers Papyrus (Cornelius-celsus.org, 2005)
Ancient Egypt Cartouche (Egy King, 2013)
The leaders of Ancient Egypt - pharaohs - were believed to be ‘god’s in human form’ (Ushistory.org, 2015). The people entrusted pharaohs with responsibilities and laws (Ushiroty.org, 2015), and the farmers in this era would pay taxes which were stored in the event of famine (Ushistory.org, 2015).
Social Structure (Mysteries of Egypt, n.d.)
Egyptian Hunting in the Marshes (Ancient History Encyclopedia, 2013)
Classical Antiquity
332BC - 629AD
Middle Ages
641 AD - 1517
1517 - 1914
A Mamluk from Aleppo, (Page, 1824)

( Mohammad Bakri 2013)
Automoney lesson by Willem Van Der Meer (forensicmed.co.uk, 2015)
Muhammad Ali of Egypt ( Ottoman Albanian commander ) with his officials in Cairo (M. Barrey, 2013)
Egyptians learnt Arabic as best they could when Arab armies conquered their land (Nelly, 2014). However certain regions of Egypt had influences on the Arabic language. Some Coptic words entered the Arabic language resulting in a newly developed Egyptian Arabic language (Nelly, 2014).
Edwin Smith surgical papyrus written in new Egypt Arabic (Medicine in Ancient Egypt, n.d.)
(Art history archieve n.d)
Most modern practices used today in Egypt originate back to ancient Egypt including, hygiene and doctor/patient confidentiality (Journey-to-Ancient-Egypt 2009). For better results in modern Egypt, private hospitals and doctors are essential for Egyptian healthcare (expatarrivals, 2014).
Dar el-Fouad (Heart House, n.d.)
Today the majority of Egyptians practice Islam and this religion rules every aspect of their lives (kwintessential, 2015). Egyptians have family values, honor and social class which determines power and position. (kwintessential, 2015).
Nubian Dance (Culture, Education and Science Bureau, 2011)

A group of school children in Egypt. (Mohsen Allam, 2000).
Egyptian Revolution (Egyptain Revolution, n.d.)
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