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barsoom Tawfik

on 7 October 2014

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Transcript of Islam

Some of Islam's spread can be contributed to simply voluntary conversions through the means of preaching from Muhammad and his followers.

Origins Continued
According to sources, through practice of the Muslim doctrine of "Jihad" early Muslims conquered and converted many early Middle Eastern areas to Islam. (began in the 7th century by Muhammad)

Jihad literally means "struggle" and is often interpreted to to be the struggle that practicing Muslims are expected to undertake against those that don't practice Islam or submit to Allah.

Lands were conquered in the name of Allah
most of the lands conquered were originally Jewish, Christian, or Tribal.

Pilgrimage to Mecca
1. Developed in the Arabian Peninsula during the 7th century C.E
around 622 C.E.
2. Muhammad is the founder of Islam
born 570 C.E.
lived during polytheistic times
often went to meditate in Mt. Hira alone and perform meditations and vigils.
it is believed he received a vision, which ignited his prophetic lifestyle.
Muhammad saw that other monotheistic beliefs became corrupted
believed he was called to deliver a "fresh revelation" (guidance)
one that was incorruptible

Muhammad's Vision
Dietary Practices
Muslims cannot consume any pork or alcohol as well as foods containing either of these.
They can only eat halal foods (halal=properly slaughtered)
Anything else is considered "haram" which translates to "bad"
Can eat mostly all fish and seafood as well as milk and eggs of halal animals

Muslim clothing is based upon a principle of Modesty

Women should cover themselves in front any man they could possibly marry
Hijab: Covers everything except hands, face, and feet
Niqab: Covers everything (including face) except eyes

Men must cover everything from the navel to the knee
Skin tight clothing prohibited
No cross-dressing
 Adhere by Qur’an, Hadith and Sunnah, and the Five Pillars of Islam

 Five Pillars of Islam: Shahadah, Salat, Zakat, Sawm, Hajj (required to live a Muslim lifestyle)
• Shahadah: Reciting the Muslim profession of faith (The one line in order to become Muslim)
• Salat: Praying the ritual prayers properly five times a day
• Zakat (meaning purification): Paying charity tax to benefit the poor and needy
• Sawm: Fasting during the month of Ramadan
• Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca- A journey to Mecca that must taken at least once within every physically-able Muslim's lifetime

Origins Continued
Originated in Arabian Peninsula and spread throughout Middle East
Major holidays inlcude: Eid ul Fitr & Eid ul Adha

Eid ul Fitr: Celebrate end of Ramadan & thank Allah for strength

Eid ul Adha: Remember Prophet Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son

There is not a set festival date due to the fact that the lunar calendar of Islam is comprised of 354 days which leads to there festivals being shifted about 11 days later every year

However, most of the spread was due to military
conquest. For example, because of a long series of wars between the Persian and Byzantine empires, the Muslims took advantage of their vulnerability and conquered them.
These conquests were often provoked or led by Caliphs, or the religious successors of Muhammad after his death in 632 C.E.
Major Principles
Comparison with Judaism and Christianity
Believe in the same story and origins of Creation
Share similar beliefs from the Old Testament
Different Laws
Islam-Sharia Law
Judaism- Halakhah Law
Christianity- Canon Law
Days of worship
Islam- Friday
Judaism- Saturday
Christianity- Sunday
Comparison Continued..
Islam is integrated with the state
Islam split in 650 C.E into Shia/Sunni, Christianity in 1054 C.E. Orthodox/Catholic, Judaism in 1800s C.E. into Reform/Orthodox
Islam split the fastest after its reformation.
Islam and Judaism are strictly Monotheistic, whereas Christianity is trinitarian monotheistic
All believe in good deeds leading towards salvation.
Islam's effect on world history
Crusades- began 1095 C.E.
Muslims fought against Roman Catholics for ownership of the Holy Land (Jerusalem)
Modern Practice of Jihad- 19th century- present
term "jihad" appeared mostly after 9/11
Means "struggle" practition involves fighting for beliefs
examples of groups of people participating in this doctrine include Al Qaeda and ISIS.
Works Cited:

Monotheistic, Polytheistic, or Henotheistic?
The main God is Allah

Muslims still believe in Prophets such as Moses and of course, Prophet Muhammad
While prophets are loved and respected, they are not praised as Gods
Religious Texts

Al Qaeda
The Crusades
"And cover not Truth with falsehood, nor conceal the Truth when ye know .And be steadfast in prayer; give Zakat, and bow down your heads with those who bow down."
Al-Baqara 2:42-43

The Qur’an is the sacred word of Allah
It corrects errors of Old and New Testament
Given to Prophet Muhammad
Consists of 114 chapters(written in Arabic)

Major Subdivisions
Major subdivisions are Sunni & Shi'a
Divisions are based on who would be Muhammad's successor

Each subdivision has somewhat different practices however they both ultimately follow e Qu'ran

Sunni - larger group
Chose Abu Bakr as Caliph
Pray 5x/day by resting foreheads on prayer rug
Shi’a - smaller group
Chose Muhammad’s son-in-law & cousin, Ali, as Caliph
Pray 3x/day by resting foreheads on clay pebble

Abu Bakr
Religion or Philosophy?
Islam is a Religion
Islam has rituals and ceremonies such as Ramadan & the Eid ul Fitr while philosophies don't

Islam operates on a system of belief or having faith in Allah. Philosophies don't have this concept of belief as they generally only accept things that are proven

Islam also has sacred scriptures like the Qu'ran
Ancient or sacred scriptures are typically not associated with philosphy

Symbol of Religion
Crescent Moon and Star

Inspired by symbol of Ottoman Empire
Mostly green (common color for mosques) because the Qu'ran talks of wearing green garments in paradise.

Islam today
Global Muslim Population: 2.08 billion (28%)

United States Muslim Population: 8.04 million (1.8%)
1. Indonesia 6. Egypt
2. India 7. Iran
3. Pakistan 8. Turkey
4. Bangladesh 9. Algeria
5. Nigeria 10. Morocco
Countries with Strong Muslim Population:
"Muslim Population Worldwide Data." Muslim PopulationWorldwide Data. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2014.
Prothero, Stephen R.
God Is Not One: The Eight Rival Religions That Run the World--and Why Their Differences Matter.
New York: HarperOne, 2010. Print.
Dawood, N. J.
The Koran.
London, England: Penguin, 1990. Print.
Islam Origins, Islam History, Islam Beliefs.
N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2014. <http://www.patheos.com/Library/Islam.html>.
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