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Mikon Zhagypar

on 1 September 2014

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Transcript of HGNS

Highly-Integrated Gamma Ray Neutron Sonde

Done by
: Meiirbek Zhagypar
WL, KZAS, Intern

1 September 2014
The Highly-Integrated Gamma Ray Neutron Sonde (HGNS) is the top asset in a group of tools collectively referred to as the Highly-Integrated Logging Tool (HILT), commonly referred to as the Platform Express (PEx).
HGNS Measurements
& Applications
GR measurement
*Log correlation
*General lithology indicator
*Quantitative shaliness evaluation

Neutron Measurement
*Gas Detection
*Lithology identification

How do Gamma Ray Interacts with matter?
The output is a pulse proportional to incoming gamma ray energy
Temperature Rating 150°С (302°F)
Pressure Rating 15,000 psi
Logging speed 1097 m/h (3600 ft/hr)
The 3 main Radioactive series in nature:
(K40) - decays to stable K39
(Th232) - decays to Pb208
(U238) - decays to Pb206

Massless chargeless bundles of high-frequency electromagnetic energy emitted when an atom passes from an excited state to a less excited/ground state
Travel at speed of light
Gamma Radiation occurs when a nuclear returns to a lower energy state or it's ground state by emission of GR or Photons.

So how do HGNS detects
Types of emissions
Natural Gamma-Ray
Hence shales are more radioactive than sands!
K, Th & U are primarily concentrated in shales

Single axis accelerometer
*Speed correction
GR measurement gives us
*Log correlation
*General lithology indicator
*Quantitative shaliness evaluation

For what do we need a Speed Correction?
Difference in IDW depth and instantaneous tool depth
Relative Position of sensors at different depths

Original Log
Speed Corrected Log
Neutrons have no electric charge and their mass is similar to that of the proton. This lack of charge allows the neutron to penetrate into the formation and makes it ideal for logging applications.
*Porosity Detection -

Neutron Measurement
application of this neutron tool. It predicts porosity by measuring the hydrogen index (HI) of the formation fluids.
*Gas Detection
- gas has a significantly smaller HI than oil or water. When the pore space of the formation is gas filled, a noticeable drop in the neutron porosity output can be seen.
*Lithology identification
- neutron porosity tools are used in conjunction with other tools for lithology identification and clay / shale analysis. They are not a stand alone lithology identifier or clay / shale typers, but provide additional input for these analyses.
Neutron Source – NSR-F
Tube containing Radioactive Beryllium & Americium.The Americium bombards Beryllium with alpha-particles causing it produces neutrons(and Gamma-Rays) at high energies.
So what are these Neutron Interactions?
...and how do HGNS detect Neutrons?
He3 Detector Gas
Safety first!!!
The HGNS contains an NSR-F (Neutron Source Radioactive version F) logging source. The high strength of this source demands that all operating personnel understand its use and respect its hazards.
The He3 detectors have a small 1.35 nanoCurie (50 Bq) uranium-234 check source attached. (The purpose of this check source is described in the Maintenance topic.) The detector is under pressure and should never be taken apart.
Contact with desiccant can cause skin and eye irritation. If inhaled it may cause nose and throat irritation, coughing, and chest discomfort. If desiccant comes into contact with water, it can cause a rise in water temperature sufficient to cause burns.
Hydrogen index
(HI) is the quantity of hydrogen per unit of volume. The HI of fresh water is defined as 1

High HI -> most of the neutrons are slowed and captured within a short distance from the source.
Low HI -> the neutrons travel farther from the source before they are captured

The neutron population at any point during logging depends mainly on the quantity of hydrogen between the source and that point (HI)

Hydrogen Index
What fluids are in the pore space?
The real pore space is the same but neutron tool will read the H density so the porosity will differ

Energy Level of a Thermal Neutron
eV at 20 C

High energy Neutrons > 10 MeV
Fast Neutrons 10 KeV - 10 MeV
Epithermal Neutrons 10 eV - 0.4 eV

100 % Porosity

& Thermal

Many Captured Neutrons

0 % Porosity

& Thermal

Some Captured Neutrons

HGNS- Outputs
NPHI Neutron porosity
Corrected for borehole size.
Without depth or resolution matching
TNPH Neutron porosity
Corrected for environmental effects: hole size, tool standoff, mud weight,mudcake, borehole salinity, pressure, temperature. (6” sampling)
With depth and resolution matching
NPOR Neutron porosity
Corrected for environmental effects and Alpha-processed
With depth and resolution matching.

HGNS - General Parameters
Matrix - Limestone, Sandstone, Dolomite

Matrix Density - 2.71 (Limestone), 2.65 (Sandstone), 2.87 (Dolomite)

Bore Hole Status - OPEN, CASED
BHS is used to select either open hole or cased hole algorithms

Corrections Summary
switch parameters which control
environmental corrections are the following:

HSCO: Hole size (or casing size) correction 
BSCO: Borehole salinity correction
PTCO: Pressure & Temperature correction
MWCO: Mud weight correction
SOCO: Standoff correction
FSCO: Formation salinity correction
MCCO: Mudcake correction
CCCO: Casing and cement thickness correction
Cased hole logging only

NPHI – Thermal Neutron Porosity Processing
The near-to-far count rate ratio is taken directly at the time of acquisition without dead time corrections.
Borehole size is the only environmental correction available and is automatically corrected for while logging
Thermal Neutron Porosity (TNPH)
The raw counts are first dead time corrected
Then are individually normalized via the master
Depth and Resolution Matching are performed
New Ratio is Calculated
Enhanced Resolution Neutron Porosity (NPOR)
TNPH + Alpha Processing
Depth and Resolution Matching
Is Method of combining measurements from two different sensors (physically located at two different points along the tool) that have different vertical resolutions

Alpha Processing
Is the process of using the shorter spacing detector to get higher resolution and the longer spacing to get reliable baseline

* Introduction
* My experience here
* HGNS Overview
* Conclusion & Recommendations
Kazakh-British Technical University, 4th year, Petroleum Engineering
SPE International Activities: KBTU SPE Student Chapter President 2013-2014.

March 2014, Intern, Drilling Department, TengizChevroil, Atyrau region, Tengiz field;
August 2013, Intern, "ZhaiykMunaiGas", Atyrau region, "Balgymbayev" field;
July 2013 Schlumberger,Drilling and Measurements, Siberian Training Center,Summer School,Tyumen Region, Russia;
June 2013, Intern, Karazhanbasmunai JSC, Aktau region;
August 2012, Drilling Department, Maersk Oil, Aktau

Winner of the Intellectual game “Zerek!”, VI Youth Forum Kazenergy “Energize Your Future”, Astana, 2013;
Winner of Intellectual game “PetroOlimp”, “Oil & Gas Horizons” Conference, Moscow, 2013;
Leader of SULS (accounting system of leadership skills) rank among FOGI; 2012-2013;2013-2014;
Winner of intellectual game “Petroleum Games”, 1st place, Almaty, 2013;
Winner of the International tournament for Eurasian Cup – «IQ games», KBTU team, 2012;
2nd place in the International tournament for Asian Cup – «IQ games», KBTU team, 2011;
President of KBTU SPE Student Chapter, 2013-2014;
“The best Leader” of KBTU student organizations, 2013-2014;
The owner of the NCOC grant 2013-2014;

Field Engineer Intern Presentation, Wireline
My experience here:
1st week
* Introduction to Workshop, duties and responsibilities
* Safety Trainings
* Exploration Phase

2nd week
* Rope-Socket
* Find Out Rig-Up Equipment
* Familiarized with Pre-Job, Post-Job Activities
* Learnt to write RIRs

3rd week
* Helped in OP Check of tools
* Introduction to process in Unit (OSLC)
* CMTD Calibration
* Rig 107, Puncher of Tubing
* Understood process & work of Ten Key System

Last week
* CBL Operation (Today)
*Presentation preparation
* Principle of process & work of HGNS
* Familiarized with SLB structure and Wireline whole range of work
* Got trainings and realized how to work safely
* Learnt and understood principle of work of Wireline Tools
* Teamwork

What is the Gamma Ray?
They are found in various proportions in crystalline rocks.
During erosion and degradation these tend to concentrate in shales.

High energy
Low energy
Medium energy

Single axis accelerometer

Thank you all for attention!
Full transcript