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French and Indian War

Details the conflict between opposing groups and the aftermath.
by

Kale Blickenstaff

on 7 January 2016

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Transcript of French and Indian War

The French and Indian War
Most Native American Indians fought on the side of the French (Huron & Algonquin)
Native Alliances
The war that raged in North America from 1754 to 1763 was apart of a larger struggle between France and England, known as the Seven Years’ War
Fighting over control of the FUR Trade of the Great Lakes and OHIO RIVER VALLEY.
Although few did fight on the side of the English (Iroquois)
English trader William Johnson married to Molly Brant sister of Iroquois chief Thayendanegea (Joseph Brant)

The war began when the English became alarmed at the Forts being built by the French in the Ohio River Valley
So the English sent General Edward Braddock commander in chief of the British forces to America to drive the French out of the Ohio Valley
Young George Washington
Aide to General Braddock

Surprise attacked French soldiers – 1st victory, 22yrs old

Built Fort Necessity

Surrendered Fort Necessity

Commanded soldiers after Braddock’s death at Duquesne

Appointed Commander in Chief of Virginia militia
June 1755: Braddock sets out from Virginia with about 1,400 red-coated British troops and a smaller number of blue-coated colonial militias including George Washington as one of his aids

Braddock’s army took several weeks to trek through dense forest to Fort Duquesne

They marched in columns and rows, and took time out everyday to sit and have tea
July 9, 1755: Native American Warriors and French troops ambushed Braddock and his men

The French and Native Americans hid behind trees and fired at the bright uniforms of the British

The British confused and frightened could not even see their attackers

The British lost badly losing nearly 1,000 soldiers including their Commander in Chief General Edward Braddock
After William Pitt comes to power as secretary of state and then as prime minister for Great Britain, the tide of the war begins to turn in favor of the British
William Pitt was an outstanding military commander who knew how to pick skilled commanders and oversaw the war effort from London
To avoid complaints from the colonists Pitt decided to pay for the war
However he ran up a huge debt and would raise colonist taxes after the French and Indian War
Pitt intended to conquer French Canada
He sent British troops to North America under the command of Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe
1758: Amherst and Wolfe recaptured the fortress at Louisbourg
That same year British officers captured Fort Frontenac at Lake Ontario, and recaptured Fort Duquesne (renaming it Fort Pitt)
The first years of the war went terrible for the British and their American colonies
The French captured several British forts including forts at Lake Ontario and Lake George
France’s Native American allies began staging raids on frontier farms from New York to what is now West Virginia
They killed settlers, burned farmhouses and crops, and chased many families back to the coast
The Battle of Quebec
Wolfe’s soldiers overwhelmed the guards on the path and scrambled up it at night.

They waited outside the fort on a field called the Plains of Abraham

Here they surprised and defeated the French Army

James Wolfe died in the battle

The French general Montcalm was also killed
The Treaty of Paris 1763
General Amherst captures Montreal one year after Quebec - fighting ends
September 1759: British general James Wolfe finds a way to attack the capital of New France, Quebec

High on a cliff overlooking the St. Lawrence River the capital was thought of as impossible to attack

A scout for Wolfe found a poorly guarded path up the back of the cliff
Gets to keep some sugar producing islands in the West Indies
Gets Canada and all land east of the MS River
Florida given up by Spain (France's ally)
Gets all France's lands west of the MS River (Louisiana) and NO
Get Nothing
France eliminated from helping natives
Spain and England control the continent
Pontiac's War
Natives begin trading with Brits, but don't like it
See each other as enemies unlike French
Settlers start moving further west
Chief Pontiac was the leader of an Ottawa village near Detroit
He recognized that the British settlers threatened the Native American way of life
Chief Pontiac formed an alliance of the Shawnee and Delaware tribes to fight the British
Spring 1763: They attacked British forts in the Great Lake region

Summer 1763: The alliance of Native Americans kill settlers in Western PA and Virginia
Although the Native Americans won many battles they failed to capture important forts as: Niagara, Fort Pitt, and Detroit

1765: The Native Americans were defeated by the British

July 1766: Pontiac signed a peace treaty and was pardoned by the British
Proclamation of 1763
To prevent more fighting King George halted settler’s westward expansion
The Appalachian Mountains were the temporary western boundary for the colonies
This angered many colonists who were already living in the area, or who have recently purchased land in the area

Parliament angry over colonies unwilling to pay for war

Colonists see themselves as a “people’s army”
“It is important for us, my brothers, that we exterminate from our lands this nation which seeks only to destroy us. You see as well as I that we can no longer supply our needs as we have done from our brothers, the French. The English sell us goods twice as dear as the French do, and their goods do not last … and they do not want to give us credit as our brothers, the French, do.” - Ottawa Chief Pontiac
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