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susanna delmastro

on 9 February 2015

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racism, prejudice, discrimination
PARADOX: in 1865 slavery was abolished BUT coloured people started being highly discriminated
no rights
no freedom
1) The belief that all members of each race possess characteristics, abilities, or qualities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races

background pic: http://advisortravelguide.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/African-Dawn.jpg









2) Preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience
3) The unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people, especially on the grounds of race, age, or sex:
The industrialising North was not economically dependent on slavery and saw it as immoral.
The Southerners believed their way of life depended on slavery
When Abraham Lincoln, leader of the recently formed, anti-slavery Republican Party (1854), was elected President in 1860, seven southern states seceded from the Union, establishing a rebel government, the Confederate States of America, and taking control of federal forts within their boundaries. Lincoln called for all states in the Union to send troops to recapture the forts. Consequently, four more states seceded.
11 states left the Union led by Lincoln and formed the confederate states of America
THE CIVIL WAR began on April 12, 1861 and lasted until 1865.
Those four years were the darkest in American history, as the nation battled over slavery and states’ rights. The increasingly urban and industrialized Northern states (The Union) eventually defeated the mainly rural and agricultural Southern states (The Confederacy)
Between 600,000 and 700,000 Americans on both sides were killed
Much of the land in the South was devastated
from: "Gone with the wind"
from "Gone with the wind"
A member of a dark-skinned group of peoples originally native to Africa south of the Sahara.

A contemptuous term for a black person.
discrimination at school
discrimination on buses
colored people actually had the right of vote, but if they did it they could be threatened
other kinds of discrimination
discrimination in bathrooms, theatres, restaurants
The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is the name of distinct movements in the United States who played a violent role against African Americans in the South. They have called for purification of American society, and all are considered right-wing.
Members made their own costumes: robes, masks, and conical hats, designed to be terrifying and to hide their identities.
The civil rights movement of the 1960s saw a surge of local Klan activity across the South, including the bombings, beatings and shootings of black and white activists. These actions, carried out in secret but apparently the work of local Klansmen, outraged the nation and helped win support for the civil rights cause. In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson delivered a speech publicly condemning the Klan and announcing the arrest of four Klansmen in connection with the murder of a white female civil rights worker in Alabama.
Mississippi Burning
The African-American Civil Rights Movement or 1960s Civil Rights Movement
encompasses social movements in the United States whose goals were to end
racial segregation and discrimination against black Americans.
The movement was characterized by major campaigns of civil resistance.
Between 1955 and 1968, acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience
produced crisis situations and productive dialogues between activists and
government authorities who had to cope with situations that highlighted the
inequities faced by African Americans. Forms of protest and/or civil
disobedience included boycotts such as the successful Montgomery Bus
Boycott (1955–56) in Alabama; "sit-ins" such as the influential Greensboro
sit-ins (1960) in North Carolina; marches, such as the Selma to Montgomery
marches (1965) in Alabama; and a wide range of other nonviolent activities.

On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a 42-year-old African American woman who worked as a seamstress, boarded this Montgomery City bus to go home from work. On this bus on that day, Rosa Parks initiated a new era in the American quest for freedom and equality.
She sat near the middle of the bus, just behind the 10 seats reserved for whites. Soon all of the seats in the bus were filled. When a white man entered the bus, the driver (following the standard practice of segregation) insisted that all four blacks sitting just behind the white section give up their seats so that the man could sit there. Mrs. Parks,
who was an active member of the local NAACP, quietly refused to give up her seat.
Her action was spontaneous and not pre-meditated, although her previous civil rights involvement and strong sense of justice were obvious influences. "When I made that decision," she said later, “I knew that I had the strength of my ancestors with me.”
She was arrested and convicted of violating the laws of segregation, known as “Jim Crow laws.” Mrs. Parks appealed her conviction and thus formally challenged the
legality of segregation.

In 1960 some students of the university of North Carolina, sat at a lunch counter in a store in Greensboro without respecting the segregation laws; at the beginning the waiters simply refused to serve them inviting them to leave. But they did not move. Some of the white customers then started pouring mayonnese, ketch-up and even hot beverages up on them to urge them to leave or to sit at the colored counter. In the end, the police arrived and the students were arrested. This became a common form of non-violent protest for equal rights and against segregation.

Fourteen-year-old Emmett Till was visiting relatives in Money, Mississippi, on August 24, 1955, when he reportedly flirted with a white cashier at a grocery store. Four days later, two white men kidnapped Till, beat him and shot him in the head. The men were tried for murder, but an all-white, male jury acquitted them. Till's murder and open casket funeral galvanized the emerging Civil Rights Movement.
Freedom Rides, in U.S. history, a series of political protests against segregation by blacks and whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961. The Freedom Ride left Washington DC on May 4th and the plan was to arrive in New Orleans. When they stopped along the way, white riders used facilities designated for blacks and vice versa.
The Freedom Riders encountered violence in South Carolina, but in Alabama the reaction was much more severe. On May 14, upon stopping outside Anniston to change a slashed tire, one bus was firebombed and the Freedom Riders were beaten. Arriving in Birmingham, the second bus was similarly attacked and the passengers beaten. In both cases law enforcement was suspiciously late in responding, and there were suspicions of collusion in that late response.

Form groups of 4 people; watch the following video and be prepared to expose briefly the main events of freedom riding to your mates

James Meredith is a civil rights activist who became the first African American to attend the University of Mississippi in 1962.
After high school, Meredith spent nine years in the Army Air Force before enrolling in Jackson State College—an all-black school—in Mississippi. In 1961, he applied to the all-white University of Mississippi. He was admitted, but his admission was withdrawn when the registrar discovered his race. Since all public educational institutions had been ordered to desegregate by this time, Meredith filed a suit alleging discrimination. Although the district court ruled against him, the case made its way to the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled in his favor.
When Meredith arrived at Ole Miss to register for classes on September 20, 1962, he found the entrance blocked. Rioting erupted, and Attorney General Robert Kennedy sent 500 U.S. Marshals to the scene. Additionally, President John F. Kennedy sent military police, troops from the Mississippi National Guard and officials from the U.S. Border Patrol. On October 1, 1962, James Meredith became the first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi.

On August 28, 1963, more than 200,000 Americans gathered in Washington, D.C., for a political rally known as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Organized by a number of civil rights and religious groups, the event was designed to shed light on the political and social challenges African Americans continued to face across the country. The march, which became a key moment in the growing struggle for civil rights in the United States, culminated in Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech, a spirited call for racial justice and equality.
" What is the best way to protest for one's rights?" Write a paragraph of about 200 words giving reasons and making examples

for further "watching"...

read and listen to the famous speech "I have a dream"
In 1964 President Lyndon Johnson finally signed the Civil Rights Act which outlawed major forms of discrimination and ended many areas of segregation
Malcolm X (May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965), born Malcolm Little was an African-American Muslim minister and a human rights activist. To his admirers he was a courageous advocate for the rights of blacks, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans; detractors accused him of preaching racism and violence.
Malcolm X was effectively orphaned early in life. His father was killed when he was six and his mother was placed in a mental hospital when he was thirteen.
In 1946, at age 20, he went to prison for larceny. While in prison he became a member of the Nation of Islam and in 1952 quickly rose to become one of its leaders. For a dozen years he was the public face of the controversial group; in keeping with the Nation's teachings he espoused black supremacy, advocated the separation of black and white Americans and scoffed at the civil rights movement's emphasis on integration.
By March 1964, Malcolm X had grown disillusioned with the Nation of Islam and its leader Elijah Muhammad. After a period of travel in Africa and the Middle East, he returned to the United States to found Muslim Mosque, Inc. and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. In February 1965, shortly after repudiating the Nation of Islam, he was assassinated by three of its members.

The Black Panthers were formed in California in 1966 and they played a short but important part in the civil rights movement. The Black Panthers believed that the non-violent campaign of Martin Luther King had failed and any promised changes to their lifestyle via the 'traditional' civil rights movement, would take too long to be implemented or simply not introduced.
The language of the Black Panthers was violent as was their public stance. The two founders of the Black Panther Party were Huey Percy Newton and Bobby Seale. They preached for a "revolutionary war" but though they considered themselves an African-American party, they were willing to speak out for all those who were oppressed from whatever minority group. They were willing to use violence to get what they wanted.
The Black Panther Party (BPP) had four desires : equality in education, housing, employment and civil rights. It had a 10 Point Plan to get its desired goals.
The ten points of the party platform were:
1) "Freedom; the power to determine the destiny of the Black and oppressed communities.
2) Full Employment; give every person employment or guaranteed income.
3) End to robbery of Black communities; the overdue debt of forty acres and two mules as promised to ex-slaves during the reconstruction period following the emancipation of slavery.
4) Decent housing fit for the shelter of human beings; the land should be made into cooperatives so that the people can build.
5) Education for the people; that teaches the true history of Blacks and their role in present day society.
6) Free health care; health facilities which will develop preventive medical programs.
7) End to police brutality and murder of Black people and other people of color and oppressed people.
8) End to all wars of aggression; the various conflicts which exist stem directly from the United States ruling circle.
9) Freedom for all political prisoners; trials by juries that represent our peers.
10) Land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice, peace and community control of modern industry."
The call for a revolutionary war against authority at the time of the Vietnam War, alerted the FBI to the Black Panther's activities. Whatever happened, the FBI was successful in destroying the Black Panther's movement.

This video makes you breath the atmosphere of the group and it also mentions some of the points quoted above
In 2008 something which black people of the '60 would have never believed happened: a "colored" man was elected the 44th President of the USA. The way has been uphill and full of difficulties and violence. There still are acts of discrimination, but many goals have been achieved. When Barrack Obama was elected President he delivered a very important speech which, in a certain sense, can be traced back to M.L. King's speech
This election had many firsts and many stories that will be told for generations. But one that's on my mind tonight is about a woman […] Ann Nixon Cooper is 106 years old.
She was born just a generation past slavery; a time when there were no cars on the road or planes in the sky; when someone like her couldn't vote for two reasons - because she was a woman and because of the colour of her skin.
And tonight, I think about all that she's seen throughout her century in America - the heartache and the hope; the struggle and the progress; the times we were told that we can't, and the people who pressed on with that American creed: Yes, we can.
At a time when women's voices were silenced and their hopes dismissed, she lived to see them stand up and speak out and reach for the ballot. Yes, we can.
[…]She was there for the buses in Montgomery, the hoses in Birmingham, a bridge in Selma, and a preacher from Atlanta who told a people that "we shall overcome". Yes, we can.

America, we have come so far. We have seen so much. But there is so much more to do […]
This is our time - to put our people back to work and open doors of opportunity for our kids; to restore prosperity and promote the cause of peace; to reclaim the American dream and reaffirm that fundamental truth - that out of many, we are one; that while we breathe, we hope, and where we are met with cynicism and doubt, and those who tell us that we can't, we will respond with that timeless creed that sums up the spirit of a people: yes, we can.
Thank you, God bless you, and may God bless the United States of America.

Watch the following film and quote all mentioned events related to the Civil Rights Movement
IN SHORT: students should be able to look at the map and explain each event or people in detail
You can find our rationale at:
Form 5 groups: each group will be in charge of a new presentation!
If you do not know how to use Prezi, this may help you!
Find a collection of images, videos, songs, poems and curiosity on
and make your own prezi!
The so-called Harlem Renaissance gave birth to the African-American literature; analyse in depth the following authors :
-Alex Haley (Roots: the saga of an American family)
- Alice Walker (the Colour Purple)
- Toni Morrison (Beloved)
Prepare your own Prezi, adding pictures, videos and extracts from books
Collect a series of images, videos and testimonies on the way slaves used to live; their houses, their jobs, their communities.
Gather them in your prezi!
The so-called Harlem Renaissance gave birth to a new kind of music. Gather songs, videos, lyrics and pictures in your own prezi!
The African culture has always kept its particularity, even in America: find pictures, videos and recipes of typical Afro-American clothes, foods, dances and habits.
Put them together in your own prezi!
Starting website: http://www.civilwarhome.com/poemssongs.htm
Starting websites: http://www.enotes.com/topics/roots/critical-essays/roots-saga-an-american-family-alex-haley

Starting website: http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/slavery
Starting website:
Starting websites: http://www.thegutsygourmet.net/soul.html
Full transcript