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The Turbulent Earth

World Scholars Cup 2013
by

Nathan Levin

on 15 May 2013

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Transcript of The Turbulent Earth

The Turbulent Earth The Earth Beneath Our Feet Disruptions of the Atmosphere Guiding Questions Erosion and the Face of the World Hurricanes and Typhoons Droughts and Desertification Tornadoes and Cyclones Sources and Impacts of Particulate Matter Physical Structure and Plate Tectonics Earthquakes and Tsunamis Volcanoes and Volcanic Landforms Key Terms Erosion Mechanical Weathering Chemical Weathering The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity. Big Idea The Layers (write this down)
Exosphere
Thermosphere
Mesosphere
Stratosphere
Troposphere
Earth is down here. Erosion is the process by which soil and rock are removed from the Earth's surface and transported and redeposited. The main actors are wind and water. Weathering refers to the specific process by which rock is broken into smaller pieces. Weathering is chemical when their is a chemical change to the rock, and mechanical when not.

Example of Chemical Weathering: Carbonic Acid in rain water reacts to weather limestone (CaCO3) into Calcium ions and CO2.

Example of Mechanical Weathering: water in the crack of a rock freezes to ice which expands breaks the rock into two or more pieces. While a localized example of erosion may seem insignificant, this slow, steady force crumbles mountains and, over time, washes continents into the sea.

One important consideration is the rate of erosion - how long would it take something like a mountain range to erode? Consider the rocky mountains of Colorado - this mountain range was uplifted over a 10 million year period between 70 and 60 million years ago. While much of the mountains' height has been eroded, in that time, they still stand nearly 4500m above sea level. Indeed, it took their predecessors, the Ancestral Rockies, around 200 million years to erode down to their roots. How Where What Why we care How could this information be used in a WSC debate? Giant tropical storms
Drop large amounts of water causing massive flooding
high winds can also cause major damage Current Events Big Idea A low pressure center = the eye of the storm
Surrounded by spiral shaped thunderstorms.

We are still not entirely sure how they form.

It happens when cold air is on top of warm water.

September is the most common month, May is the least. Typhoons and hurricanes = same same but different

Typhoons form in the Pacific and hit SE Asia.

Hurricanes form in the Atlantic and hit the Eastern Coast of North America. How do Volcanoes relate to a world in motion?

Volcanoes and Earthquakes are fairly unique geologic phenomena because they can have such rapid, often devastating effects. Yet volcanoes are also responsible for rapid land formation - think of the pacific islands of the ring of fire, or hot-spot volcanic islands like Hawaii. The nice thing about hurricanes and typhoons is that we can generally spot them coming and prepare ahead of time.

If you look at places like SE Asia the buildings are actually designed with typhoons in mind. Hurricane Sandy


Typhoon Bopha Atlantic hurricane
category 3
2012
US eastcoast Pacific typhoon
category 5!
2012
Phillipines Definition: A tornado is a violently rotating column of air touching both the ground and a cumulonimbus cloud at the same time. Cyclone is a more general term used by meteorologists to describe any closed low pressure circulation. Other Names Dust Devil
Water Spout
Twister
Steam Devil
Fire Whirl Key Features Very short lived, like a few minutes to an hour
Powerful, dangerous, and majestic
typically form in large flat parts of the world i.e. the midwestern United States (Ohio). On your own now... The earth is system consisting of millions of processes happening simultaneously all the time. Many of these processes are cyclic, e.g. days, years, seasons. Humans have thrown a wrench in the works, and now we need to grab hold of that wrench and get to work. Drought: When a particular area experiences lower than average rates of rainfall over an extended period of time. Key words: Pollution
Air Quality Index
Health Effects China: AQI 123 Alaska: AQI 30 What causes the natural movements of the Earth?
What causes the unnatural movements of the Earth?
When do such movements become disasters?
How do different societies respond differently to disasters?
What can be predicted? What can be managed? Things to think about 1. Causes and Consequences of Climate Change
2. Toward a New Mastery of the Earth Debate This Laissez Faire is the best type of environmental policy.

Humanities impact on the environment in the next 100 years will be more positive than the last 100 years.

Global warming is a natural process necessary for the earth. Homework 1. Start putting together a collection of WSC research in a binder, folder, briefcase, cardboard box... something.
2. Start listening to the music, watching the movies, and reading the literature.
3. Nominate one member of your group to be in a debate showcase next week. Turbulent: Characterized by conflict, disorder, or confusion; not controlled or calm.
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