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Guatemala Presentation

Human Rights Course

Idil Ali

on 22 October 2012

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Transcript of Guatemala Presentation

Civilian Defense Patrols
Conscripted locals
Forced to expose family, neighbors Guatemala Guatemala: Economics A brief overview of U.S. Intervention and Regional and International Peace Efforts in Guatemala before, during, and after conflict

1954 - 1994 Guatemala: International Influences 200,000+ dead
40-50,000 "Disappeared"
Assassination of political opposition
Violent suppression of organization among students and unions Guatemala: Aftermath Ronnell Perry, Chloe Bohm, Jonathan Garro, Idil Ali, and Kelson Hedderich Guatemala: 1934 to 1996 Pre-Colonial Guatemala Colonial Guatemala: 1524 - 1821 Height: 300 - 900 AD
Known for its architecture, art, and mathematics developments
Sharp decline in 900 AD - may have been caused by drought Mayan Civilization Post Mayan Empire Guatemala: Background Current Economic Profile Land Distribution Pre-Revolution
1950 (UFCO) Displacement Immigration to US, Mexico, Canada

Remittances: top recipient in Central America = 1/5 GDP Peace and Truth December, 1996 - Peace Agreements 1997 -
Truth Commission 200,000 killed
83% of victims were Mayan
17% were Ladino State Forces were directly responsible for 93% of all documented violence Consisted of members from variety of backgrounds (academic, local citizens, etc.) Conducted 7,200 interviews with 11,000 people http://www.usip.org/publications/truth-commission-guatemala Commission Recommendations Very weak
Not allowed publish names of anyone directly responsible
Did not call for prosecution
Only financial reparations recommended were in the form of monuments and parks
Encouraged a culture of mutual respect http://www.usip.org/publications/truth-commission-guatemala International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala Roles of the Commission: Investigate the existence of illegal forces in the country that threaten human rights
Help build legal capacity to investigate past offenders and prosecute them
Prepare the government to take on these responsibilities once the CICIG mandate expires Was set to expire in 2009, but has been extended In 2009, the first military officer ever was convicted for the disappearance of peasants. Poor Results Guatemala is still suffering from weak institutions and is very dangerous.

Today, the murder rate is actually higher than during the civil war. Mexican drug cartels have moved into Guatemala in order to control drug trade into South America.

Carlos Castresana, the leader of CICIG, resigned in 2010 and explained that the government had not kept its promise to support the CICIG's work and reform the justice system http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/latin-america-caribbean/guatemala/033-guatemala-squeezed-between-crime-and-impunity.aspx Guatemala:
Policy Recommendations Improve tax collection capabilities Show neighboring countries that they have much to gain from working together to address the drug trade "The impact of forced liberalizations, deregulations and privatizations of national economies on the authority of the failing state is quite clear."

- Ekhardt (2006), pp. 26 Conflict Theory:
Shaping the Guatemalan Civil War in the Cold War Contest The Cold War ushered in a new era of conflict that was both international in influence and increasingly internalized in its destruction. Old Wars (Up to and including WWII)
Modern states as opposing actors
State-controlled hierarchical armies New Wars (Guerrilla movements)
Erosion of the state
Waged internally and with heavy costs in spillover effects
Non-state actors
Violence directed at civilians CIA Justification for the Overthrow of Arbenz "Following fall of Dictator Ubico in 1944, pendulum swung far to left and Guatemala under left-wing leader Arevalo 1944 to 1951 when Arbenz took over. Arbenz able army officer but slowly came under complete influence of hard-core Communists, particular Fortuny, Pellecer, Gutierrez, and others who trained in Communist school, frequent visitors to Moscow and satellites. [Prague School]... Communists took over labor unions, radio, major press organs, and dominated Indian peasantry who had little interest in Marx." Source: Central Intelligence Agency, Job 79-01025A, Box 151, Folder 2. No classification marking. A covering memorandum to the Director of Central Intelligence from Tracy Barnes listed the participants scheduled to attend the White House briefing on July 29. <history.state.gov> Jacobo Arbenz El presidente derrocado en 1954 por la CIA era llamado El Soldado del Pueblo

The president, overthrown in 1954 by the CIA, is known as "The Soldier of the People" Source: http://colarebo.wordpress.com/2011/10/03/guatemala-inicia-desagravio-a-la-memoria-de-jacobo-arbenz/ United States Supports Violence by State Army in Guatemala Supported by U.S., Guatemala's army was the "first modern counterinsurgency military in Latin America"
U.S. Department of State pressured U.S. newspapers not to report the full brutality of massacres occurring Source: Cleary, Edward L. (2001). Examining Guatemalan Process of Violence and Peace. Latin American Research Review The five Central American presidents met in May, 1986 and “took their fate into their own hands”

Vinicio Cerezo (Guatemala)
Jose Azcona (Honduras)
Oscar Arias (Costa Rica)
Napoleón Duarte (El Salvador)
Daniel Ortega (Nicaragua)

First regional meeting of its kind in over a decade
Esquipulas II was limited in effect in part by continued U.S. aid to the Contras

At the same time and International Court of Justice case was brought against the United States for continuing military aid to the Contras in Nicaragua which resulted in a UN Resolution to halt U.S. military aid to the Contras

Source: Oliver, Johanna (1999). The Esquipulas Process: A Central American Paradigm for Resolving Regional
Conflict. Ethnic Studies Report, Vol. XVII, No. 2, July 1999 Instability and Peace Efforts in Central America
Esquipulas I Meeting of 1986 & Esquipulas II Peace Accord of 1987 Source: Government of Guatemala, http://www.coha.org/reflecting-on-esquipulas-at-25-while-undoing-a-grave-injustice-to-vinicio-cerezo-2/ The Oslo Initiative, 1993
Lutheran World Federation supports peace talks with close ties to U.S. and Scandinavian churches

Catholic Bishops Conference moderates peace talks through 1994, UN present as an observer

The Framework Accord, January 1994
Established the Assembly for Civil Society (ASC)

Human Rights Accord, March 1994

UN Verification Mission (MINUGUA), November 1994

The Final Peace Accord, December 1996
Supported internationally by Mexico, Spain, Norway, and the United States as well as Columbia and Venezuela

SOURCE: Amaro, Nelson; Chase-Dunn, Christopher; Jonas, Susanne ed. (2001).
Globalization on the Ground: Postbellum Guatemalan Democracy and
Development. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.: Lanham. Pp. 45-99. United Nations & International Religious Organizations Lead Peace Talks Established September 19, 1994

The purpose was to perform verification and institution-building activities
More than 250 specialists sent to Guatemala

Demilitarization process aided by international actors including the European Union, USAID, OAS and United Nations programs and agencies

Source: United Nations Peacekeeping Operations <http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/minuguabackgr.html> United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA) SOURCE: UN verifies agreement on ceasefire in Guatemala, http://www.xtimeline.com/evt/view.aspx?id=21753 "MINUGUA stands as a successful example of UN peace-building, with valuable lessons for operations in other parts of the world."

-- UN Secretary General, 1994

SOURCE: United Nations Peace Operations: Year in Review 1994
<http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/publications/yir/2004/ch3.htm#minugua> Human Rights Abuses Kaibiles
Trained by the US
Specialized in terror, torture, interrogation, kidnapping and jungle warfare "Scorched Earth" Campaign
Directed toward suspected guerrilla havens
Destruction of land, water, communities
Recruitment of Civilian Defense Patrols Guatemala was the laboratory
of "dirty war" tactics (cc) image by jantik on Flickr 1821 Guatemala: 1821 to 1885 Guatemala wins independence from Spain and joins the Mexican empire Guatemala joins the United Provinces of Central America 1824 Guatemala becomes a fully independent state 1839 Rafael Carrera rules as a dictator 1844- 1865 Justo Rufino Barrios is elected president 1873- 1885 President Jorge Ubico continues his reign 1934 - 1944 Rule of Presidents Juan Arevalo and Jacobo Arbenz Guzman 1944 - 1954 U.S. Backed Coup ; Colonel Carlos Castillo Armas takes reign 1954 - 1958 Civil War officially ends with a formal peace accord under President Alvaro Arzu 1996 Carlos Arana becomes president; Military leaders begin a systematic elimination of the left-wing 1970 Genocide
83% of victims indigenous Mayan, 17% Ladino
Systematic targeting of predominantly Mayan districts and villages
Widespread massacres, most famously at Dos Erres and Plan de Sanchez

The empire left behind several indigenous and autonomous kingdoms that preserved the Mayan culture Guerillas
Various resistance groups
Poorly trained and equipped Operation "Ceniza" All Sides Responsible
Army/CDPs responsible for 93% of documented atrocities, 4% from guerillas
Use of rape, maiming, infanticide, torture, kidnapping, terror, extrajudicial killings
Recruitment of child soldiers on both sides of conflict 54% of population below poverty line Agriculture provides livelihood to over 50% of the population Key exports:
Sugar Central American Free Trade Agreement
July 2006: Increased U.S. investment in the export sector
Tariff and distance advantage over Asian competitors
Reduced country risk= increased attractiveness Economy is very sensitive to international prices .28% of farm owners had 45% of farms 76% of owners had 9.85% of the farms 1952 Agrarian Reform under Arbenz Goal to reduce amount of unused land "Pro-Communist" Gov't farmland and private holdings made available to landless Expropriation of UFCO (know as El Pulpo) lands lead to US-sponsored coup Armas Approach Rural Development Progrm Redistribution to be based on development of agricultural sector Settlement process, Credit, Extension services in hopes of economic viability Re-appropriation of lands to private industry At one time, largest landholder
U.S. government involvement in land disputes
U.S. backed anti-communist coup of Arbenz
Economic gains from Ubico's appropriation
Complicit with Guatemalan gov't to repress labor movements Internal displacement Peace Accords: Agreement on Social and Economic Aspects Democratic participation and consensus-building
Inclusivity: participation of women, all social classes
Increase in social services: Goal annual GDP growth >6%
Encouragement of foreign and national investments Source: http://www.usip.org/files/file/resources/collections/peace_agreements/guat_960506.pdf Militants Corrupt Politics 2000 - Alfonso Portillo become first democratically elected President since the Peace Accords
Was seen as a "strong" leader (admitted killing two people in Mexico)
Claimed he wanted to decentralize the national government and give more authority to local governments
Many charges of corruption during his term (2000 - 2004)
Recently extradited to U.S. to stand trial for embezzling more than $70 million of Guatemalan funds through U.S. banks However, agriculture is only 13% of the GDP Human Development Indicator: 131 out of 187 Collier Disband the Kaibiles and purge intelligence services Source: Global Forces and Regime Change: Guatemala in the Central American Context John A. Booth. Journal of Inter-american Studies and World Affairs, Vol. 42, No. 4, Globalization and Democratization in Guatemala (Winter, 2000), pp. 70 Source: http://www.migrationinformation.org/feature/display.cfm?ID=392 "Frightened people flee thier homes." "Civil war is development in reverse." Engage in anti-corruption initiatives in ministries

Incorporate small-plot agriculture into national economic policy

Improve infrastructure: roads, transport, IT to support tourism and tele-comm based business

Reform curricula to promote workforce development

Foster through government subsidies and tax incentives more productive economic sectors

Pursue the prosecution of war criminals, past and present Payments to the Victims Program to pay families of victims began in 2003

Has paid out more than 10,000 checks, with varying amounts One example:
A man who lost 16 family members, including parents, during the Scorched Earth campaign, got a check for $5400 - five years after applying for payment 2008 - President Colom takes office
Has had five different interior ministers - two of whom are facing corruption charges
Two police chiefs have been arrested for connections to drug trafficking http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-17149812; http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/map-of-the-maya-world.html The Spanish conquered Guatemala in 1523
Conquistadors recruited non-Mayan indigenous populations to help 'co-conquer'
The Spanish Empire's strategy: adjust already existing institutions for España's needs http://www.lienzo.ufm.edu/cms/en/how-does-the-story-begin; http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Sociology/grads/mvomhau/documents/AJS-Colonialism_and_Development.pdf mapsofworld.com; worldstatesmen.org; forum.paradoxplaza.com; galasdeguatemala.com; guatemalaguides.com time.com; Civil war begins with guerilla groups attacking military groups 1960 - 1966 Castillo murdered - General Miguel Ydigoras Fuentes begins autocracy 1958 Julio Cesar Mendez Montenegro, a civilian, is elected president 1966 Gen. Efrain Rios Montt began his militaristic reign 1982 Pres. Ramiro De Leon Carpio begins peace talks 1994 Founded in 1839
Home to 13 million
In conflict sine 1960
Suffered over 200,000 deaths and more displacements, victims, and human rights abuses Guatemala How? Coup occurs- Geneal Mea Victores takes power 1983 Jorge Serrano Elias elected president 1991 Ceasefire declared 1995 Operation "Victoria 82"
Formed the CDPs
Food for work programs
Militarized villages to process refugees Source: Land Reform, Guatemalan Style Ross Pearson The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 22, No. 2 (Apr., 1963), pp. 225Published by: American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=biofuels-land-grab-guatemala The United Fruit Company Serrano attempts to dissolve the government 1993 Civil war toll since 1980 - " 100,000 dead and 40,000 missing " 1989 Services sector is 65% of GDP http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1215811.stm; http://globaledge.msu.edu/Countries/Guatemala/History; http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/guatemala704/history/timeline.html#
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