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on 22 October 2013

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Chapter 5:

Political Changes
Council of the Indies=>Philippine’s administrator as a crown colony.
Laws of Indies, La Novisima Recopilacion, Leyes de Toro, Siete Partidas
=>laws that are applied in the Philippines that was originated from Mexico and Spanish America.
Two branches of government are executive and judicial
Governor- general=>the highest political position in the country. He is the Commander-in-chief of the armed forces and the vice royal patron in the Philippines.
Cumpalce=>a right of the governor-general to suspend Royal decree.
Audiencia=>established to administrate justice to aggrieved people in the colony and it is the highest court.
Alcalde mayor a provincial governor. His salary was small but can get some of some of the tribute to increase his income.

Introduction of Printing:

Xylography=>first printing press in the Philippines. It uses woodblock to print.
Christian doctrine in Tagalog and Chinese=>1st 2 books printed by the said method.
Typography=> improved printing techniques that uses movable types of small pieces of woods or iron.
Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala by Father Domingo de las Santos was printed in 1703 in Tayabas (now Quezon Province) using typography.

Indulto de comercio=>a right to the mayor to engage in trade.
Municipal Government=>under provincial government headed by gobernadorcillo.
Cebu, Manila, Nueva Sigovia ( Lal-lo, Cagayan), Arevalo (Iloilo City), and Nueva Caceres (Naga) are the six cities that is the center of commercial, religious and cultural life.
Situado=> an annual subsidy by Mexico in the Philippines worth 250,000 to save the colonial government of the Philippines from bankruptcy.
Economic Changes:
Encomienda=> was not actually a piece of land, but a favor from the King, under which the Spaniard receiving the favor was given the right to collect tributes or taxes from the inhabitants of an area assign for him and it was headed by the encomiendero.
Tribute=> a form of recognition of the Filipino's loyalty to the king of Spain.
Sanctorum=> a small portion of a tax went to the Church but abolished in 1884.
Cedula Personal=> present equivalent of the residence certificate class "A".

Aside from tribute, the Filipinos also paid other taxes such as:
Diezmos Prediales=> a tax which consisted of one-tenth of the produce of land.
Donativo de Zamboanga=> was a tax specially used for the conquest of Solo.
Vinta=> a tax used to paid by the people of some provinces along the coast of western Luzon for the defense of the coasts from Muslim pirates, who raided the Visayas and Luzon for “slaves” that they needed in their overseas trading.


The first one hundred and fifty years of Spanish rule
was characterized by slow economic development. At this time, most Spanish officials were lazy, incompetent, and efficient. There were also frequent quarrels among the Spaniards themselves, especially between the clergy and the governor-general, on the other hand, the high-ranking ecclesiastical officials and the friar-curates. under this circumstances, the people became unproductive and seemingly indolent. There was very little economic and social improvement in the life of masses, while the colonial officials and the church hierarchy grew rich.
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