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Canada and Appeasement in WWII
Transcript of Canada and Appeasement in WWII
1940 Hitler quickly took over Norway, Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands
May 27 - June 4) British & French troops retreated and became trapped on the beaches of Dunkirk.
900 ships sailed to Dunkirk to rescue 340,000 British soldiers and take them back to the UK.
Hitler halted his attack on Britain and France to allow for evacuation.
While ammunition, tanks and guns were left behind, it did allow for future war Heroes, like Bernard Law Montgomery to fight another day.
The Evacuation of Dunkirk
With the fall of France in May 1940, Hitler thought Britain would sue for peace - but they didn't
"Operation Sea Lion" (July to October 1940) - The German invasion of UK
Battle of Britain - 1940
Hong Kong was a British Colony
Having just bombed Pearl Harbor, Japan was being aggressive in the Asia Pacific.
Canadian Troops went to defend Hong Kong, at the request of Britain, in the off chance Japan tried to take the colony....which they did.
Canada in Hong Kong - 1941
Canada in Burma
Japanese Occupation of Burma and SE Asia from 1942 - 1945
Role: 8000 Canadian soldiers...
1) Transported goods and tactical information for the allies
2) Prevented Japan from linking up with Indian allies
August 1942: The Soviet Union needed the allies to relieve some pressure on the Eastern front.
Canadians in Europe were getting restless in London and jumped at the chance for action.
It was a practice for an eventual amphibious landing (D-Day).
Originally called Operation RUTTER, but was cancelled and renamed JUBILEE
Numerous errors resulted in epic failure:
Lebensraum: "Inferior races should be conquered and enslaved by the superior Germans.
Nazi Soviet Pact "ensured" peace between Soviets and Nazis
1941 Hitler invaded USSR (Operation Barbarossa)
3 million Germans made it near Moscow in 6 months.
Stalin practiced "Scorched Earth," like Russia had done against Napoleon in 1700s.
Battle lasted until 1943 where entire Nazi army captured outside of Stalingrad.
The Italian Campaign
The D-Day Invasion
With the USSR's gains in the East and the loss of North Africa, Germany was on the retreat.
July 1943: Canadians, and allies, landed in Sicily using amphibious attack.
Canadian invasion stopped by Germany, in Ortona, in December 1943.
Vandoos (Fr-Cnd speaking Division) broke through, defeating the last line of German defense before Rome.
Ugliest fighting occurred here: street by street & house by house.
June 6, 1944: Operation Overlord
Canadians assigned 1 of 5 beach targets - JUNO beach.
14000 Canadian soldiers participated
36 Bomber squadrons from the RCAF
5000 Canadians killed on the shores.
Canada was the only country to reach its destination on the first day
May 1944 - 1945
Canadians assigned with liberating The Netherlands
Freed up the Allies to move towards Berlin for the final blow.
Canada on the Home front
Role of Women
Unlike WWI, women played a much more varied and active role in the army in WWII
46000 women served overseas
Canadian Women's Army Corps
RCAF Women's Division
Naval Service "Wrens"
More women entered the work force compare to WWI.
Over 1 million women by 1944.
Filled men's jobs, but still paid less.
Expected to return home after the war.
"Enemy Alien" meant:
Where they could travel
What kind of jobs they could hold.
Report to the “Registrar of Enemy Aliens” monthly.
War Measures Act
26 internment camps were set up across Canada.
Order in Council passed defining enemy aliens as "all persons of German or Italian racial origin who have become naturalized British subjects since September 1, 1922."
22000 Japanese interned (14000 born in Canada)
Japanese Possessions sold to pay for internment camps
1940: National Resources Mobilization Act
All men to help with war effort
Vote for King to be relieved of promise not to have conscription.
People allow (French vote against)
sent, but only
saw actual action.
Strained French / English relations...but not as bad as in 1st WW
Possible Essay questions:
Role of women
French English Relations
Participation in WWI differ from WWII?
How was society affected Politically, Economically and Socially after WWII?
International Contributions between 1914 - 2000
Contribute to an Autonomous Nation
Tanks and Infantry combined
Supported by Artillery
Supported by the
(German Air force)
: Rush on the opposition
"The pace is too fast……it’s the co-operation between the dive-bombers and the tanks that is winning the war for Germany."
The German Foe
1935 - Saar Coalfields returned to Germany via plebicite
1936 - The Rhineland retaken from French protection. Germany re-militarizes it
1938 - Austria is annexed and taken over by Germany. (
1937 (Oct) - Sudetenland Czechoslovakia annexed
1938 (March) - All of Czechoslovakia
1939 (Aug/Sept) - Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
Agreement to invade & share Poland
Britain outnumbered 3:1
Climax: "The Blitz" 57 consecutive nights of aerial bombardment
112 Canadians fought (23 died)
Goal: Destroy the RAF so German invasion can begin
Strategy for Success: Britain drew the Luftwaffe over the city and, using anti-aircraft tactics, prevented Nazi conquest for the first time.
October, 1940 Hitler postpones invasion & turns attention toward Soviet Union
The first Battle action for Canada in WWII.
Lasted 17 days, surrendering on Christmas Day 1941
500 Wounded, 290 killed, and 267 prisoners died in Japanese POW camps.
These were the FIRST to be captured in WWII, and the LAST prisoners to be released from WWII.
A Brief History:
1919 - Mussolini created the Fascist Party comprised of disgruntled war vets called the Black Shirts.
1922 - Amidst political chaos in Italy, Mussolini marches on Rome and is invited to form government by the king.
Mussolini becomes dictator of Italy in 1925
In 1939 forms the "Pact of Steel" with Hitler.
By fall of 1944, Northern Italy was freed.
1945, Benito Mussolini was hanged by an Italian village as he attempted to flee Italy.