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Copy of PPVT-4
Transcript of Copy of PPVT-4
Using Standardized Tests to Assess Language
How is this assessment beneficial to teachers of the deaf/hard-of-hearing?
Key Point #1:
As there is no reading or writing component, the test is useful for measuring language development amongst non-readers and people who have difficulty with reading and writing.
What are some of PPVT-4's key features?
Key Point #3:
The illustrations are in full colour and have pictures that are up-to-date and easily to identify.
Key Point #2
Because the test allows for a wide variety of difficulty, it can be administered to children of all ages. Acceptable for ages 2 years 6 months, to 90 years of age.
Key Point #5:
The assessment uses a variety of words including nouns, verbs and attributes which can help with identifying where the student may be having difficulty in their language development.
Purpose of the Assessment:
The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test evaluates a student’s receptive skills and their ability to identify words that are age appropriate. It measures their vocabulary growth compared to that of their peers and can be an indicator of why a child may be having difficulties with developing typical age appropriate literacy skills.
Nouns, Verbs and Attributes
Easy to Administer and Score
Accessible for Spoken English or ASL
Key Point #4:
A variety of comparative scores are available including Age Equivalency, Grade Equivalency, Percentile, Normal Curve Equivalent, Stanine, and Growth Scale Value.
Components of the Assessment:
-ADMINISTRATION EASELS: Form A, Form B
Both Form A and B contain similar but non-identical content. The student is presented with 4 pictures per page and they have to select the correct picture after being prompted by the administrator.
-RECORD FORMS: Available for Form A and Form B and are used to record the student's responses.
-MANUAL: This is a comprehensive guide that explains how to administer, score and interpret the test. It also contains the normative data used to establish the scores.
-SCORING SOFTWARE: Available for electronic scoring and interpretation of data.
How to Administer the PPVT-4:
Ensure there is enough time for your students to carefully consider their answers, however, it does not take very long to do the assessment. The testing time is on average 11-12 minutes in length and majority of students will be able to complete the test in less than 20 minutes.
Set up your assessment in a quiet, private room with minimal distractions. Ensure that you have a comfortable temperature with adequate lighting so the student can see the pictures clearly and have
few other distractions.
ARRANGEMENT OF MATERIAL:
In order to explain how the test works with the child, choose a training item that is appropriate for the child’s age. If they are 1-3:11 years old start with Training Page A and if they are Ages 4- Adult, start with Training Page B (these are clearly marked on each form). To qualify for testing, the child must respond correctly to at least 2 of the training items. Once 2 items are identified correctly, the examiner can continue with the Set that is appropriate for that child’s age.
Pictures are set up on a large page that has an easel as the base. The student should see only the one side while the administrator views the other side where the instructions or other pictures are shown.
The best place for a student and the adminstrator to sit are at the corner of a table or desk. If the child is really young, the examiner might want to sit next to the child, but they have to take special care to ensure the child does not see the record form where they are marking correct and incorrect answers.
The student has the choice to either point to a picture or say the number that corresponds to the correct response. Appropriate ways to instruct the child would be:
“Put your finger on [word]”
“Show me [word]”
“Where is [word]”
You can repeat the word when the student requests a repetition or when a repetition appears necessary (ie. The student looks confused or fails to respond).
Mark the response on the form by circling the number that the student selected. If they got it correct, continue to the next item, if they got it incorrect, circle the number they choose, and then put a line through the E on the end. If they don’t respond, put a line through the E and then write "DK" beside it.
MARKING THE TEST:
SCORING AND INTREPRETING RESULTS:
Once the "Training Items" are completed, the administrator directs the student to identify the pictures in the set that are appropriate for their chronological age.
If a child has more than 1 error on the set for their age, the administrator must ask the child to identify the pictures in the previous set, until the child get’s 0-1 errors for that set. If they get 0-1 errors in the set that is age appropriate, than this set is known as their
Next, the administrator must establish a
item by continuing through the sets until the child receives 8 or more errors in a set. The last number in that set is the ceiling.
The administrator must then add up the total errors for each set and mark it down under “Calculating the Total Number of Errors” on the back of the first page of the form.
Under “Calculating the Raw Score” the administrator needs to write down the ceiling item and subtract the total number of errors to get the student's
Under “Score Summary” on the front page of the form, write down the Raw Score.
Refer to Table B.5 for Age Equivalent scores. You can find Table B.5 in Appendix B and use the chart to find the age equivalency using the Raw Score.
Refer to Table B.6 for Grade Equivalent scores. Find Table B.6 in Appendix B and use the chart to find the grade equivalency using the Raw Score.
Record your findings on the front
of the form.
Finding Age/Grade Equivalent Scores:
Standard and Percentile Scores:
In order to calculate the Standard or Percentile Scores refer to Table B.1 that corresponds to the chronological age of the child.
Use the table to find the Raw Score (for either Form A or Form B, depending on the test administered) and then move across the table to find the Standard Score.
Using the Standard Score, refer to Table B.4 to find the Percentile by finding the Standard Score and moving across the chart.
Mark down the findings on the “Graphical Profile” and draw a line vertically to show a visual of Percentile and Standard Scores.
Difficulties with Vocabulary = Difficulties with Reading
It's understandable that students who have difficulties with their receptive vocabulary skills will also have difficulties with reading and writing. Because the PPVT-4 allows students to identify pictures rather than words, receptive language skills can be measured independently and therefore give a good indication of whether or not it is the written word that the student struggles with or if it is their understanding of language as a whole. If the child is unable to develop their language base for everyday objects and actions all around them, than this needs to be established before they can work on literacy and grammar development.
This assessment allows the administrator to calculate the number of errors that were noun, verb, or attribute based. By totaling the number of errors in each of these categories it can indicate where vocabulary instruction can be focused. A teacher would be able to pin-point whether or not a more in-depth instruction on syntactic forms may be necessary and can target their teaching instruction for that specific student's needs.
Administering this test does not take a lot of time (less than 20 min.) and also is incredibly simple to administer and score. The test has clear guidelines of where to start with a student, how to find the basal and the ceiling. Once the raw score is established, clearly laid out charts allow for a comparison of where the child is compared to others their age and their grade level and provides a percentile score. It's a quick and easy snapshot into a child's receptive language skills.
As the assessment is for ages 2 years and 6 months-90 years of age it can be administered to any child at the pre-school elementary or secondary level. The pictures are clear and suitable for the age of the student and therefore are easily recognized. If a child has receptive skills that are above their age level, than there is a clear indication of what age/grade level they are capable of.
This assessment is suitable for both ASL users and those with spoken English (again, no reading or writing needed). There may be some cases where the ASL sign does not appropriately test the complexity of the child's vocabulary. For example, "veterinarian" is "pet doctor" in ASL, which is easy to choose from the pictures available. Therefore, this would be easier to identify than the original word. However, overall, this assessment is a useful tool for both languages.