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INTERACTIVE THEORIES

INTERACTIVE THEORIES
by

Rudelyn Martin

on 14 August 2013

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Transcript of INTERACTIVE THEORIES

Interactive theories
INTERACTIVE THEORIES
VIRGINIA HENDERSON
14 BASIC HUMAN NEEDS
JOYCE TRAVELBEE
HUMAN- TO- HUMAN RELATIONSHIP THEORY
THE END !!!
Hildegard Peplau: Interpersonal Relations Theory
Virginia Henderson: 14 Basic Human Needs
Travelbee: Human- to- Human Relationship Theory
Hildegard Peplau
Interpersonal Relations Theory
Born in Reading, Pennsylvania [1909], USA

Diploma program in Pottstown, Pennsylvania in 1931.

BA in interpersonal psychology - Bennington College in 1943.

MA in psychiatric nursing from Colombia University New York in 1947.

Professor emeritus from Rutgers university

Started first post baccalaureate program in nursing

Published Interpersonal Relations in Nursing in 1952

1968 :interpersonal techniques-the crux of psychiatric nursing

Worked as executive director and president of ANA.

Worked with W.H.O, NIMH and Nurse Corps.

Died in 1999.
HILDEGARD PEPLAU
PHASES OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP
1. Orientation
2. Identification
3. Exploitation
4. Resolution
ORIENTATION PHASE
Problem defining phase



Starts when client meets nurse as stranger



Defining problem and deciding type of service needed



Client seeks assistance ,conveys needs ,asks questions, shares preconceptions and expectations of past experiences



Nurse responds, explains roles to client, helps to identify problems and to use available resources and services
EXPLOITATION PHASE
problem solving alternatives


services are used is based on the needs and interests of the patients

Individual feels as an integral part of the helping environment

They may make minor requests or attention getting techniques
EXPLOITATION PHASE
The principles of interview techniques must be used in order to explore, understand and adequately deal with the underlying problem

Patient may fluctuates on independence

Nurse must be aware about the various phases of communication

Nurse exploits all avenues of help and progress is made towards the final step
RESOLUTION PHASE
Termination of professional relationship

The patients needs have already been met by the collaborative effect of patient and nurse

Now they need to terminate their therapeutic relationship and dissolve the links between them.

Roles of Nurses
1. Technical expert
2. Consultant
3. Health teacher
4. Tutor
5. Socializing agent
6. Safety agent
7. Manager of environment
8. Mediator
9. Administrator
10. Recorder observer
11. Researcher

Born in Kansas City, Missouri, in 1897.
Diploma in Nursing from the Army School of Nursing at Walter Reed Hospital, Washington, D.C. in 1921.
Worked at the Henry Street Visiting Nurse Service for 2 years after graduation.
In 1923, started teaching nursing at the Norfolk Protestant Hospital in Virginia
In 1929, entered Teachers College at Columbia University for Bachelor’s Degree in 1932, Master’s Degree in 1934.
"The 20th century Florence Nightingale.“
Died: March 19, 1996.
The 14 components
Breathe normally.
Eat and drink adequately.
Eliminate body wastes.
Move and maintain desirable postures.
Sleep and rest


• Select suitable clothes-dress and undress.



• Maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing and modifying environment



• Keep the body clean and well groomed and protect the integument.

• Avoid dangers in the environment and
avoid injuring others.


• Communicate with others in expressing emotions,
needs, fears, or opinions.


• Worship according to one’s faith.


Work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment.


Play or participate in various forms of recreation.

Learn, discover, or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and health and use the available health facilities.

A psychiatric nurse, educator and writer born in 1926.
JOYCE TRAVELBEE
Interactional Phases of Human-to-Human Relationship Model

Original Encounter
Emerging Identities
Empathy
Sympathy
Rapport

EMERGING IDENTITIES
EMPATHY
SYMPATHY
RAPPORT
VIRGINIA HENDERSON
Seven basic Concepts of Human- to- Human Relationship Theory
1. Suffering- an experience that varies in intensity, duration and depth
2. Meaning- reason attributed to a person
3. Nursing- which helps a person find meaning in the experience of illness and suffering
4. Hope- faith that can and will be a change that would bring something better with it.
5. Communication, which is "a strict necessity for good nursing care."
6. Self-therapy- ability to use one's own personality
7. Intellectual approach

Major Concepts
The theory explains the purpose of nursing is to help others identify their felt difficulties.

Nurses should apply principles of human relations to the problems that arise at all levels of experience.

Peplau's theory explains the phases of interpersonal process, roles in nursing situations and methods for studying nursing as an interpersonal process.

Nursing is therapeutic in that it is a healing art, assisting an individual who is sick or in need of health care.
Person - A developing organism that tries to reduce anxiety caused by needs.

Environment - Existing forces outside the organism and in the context of culture
Health - A word symbol that implies forward movement of personality and other ongoing human processes

Nursing - A significant therapeutic interpersonal process.
DEFINITIONS:
Four Major Concepts
1. Individual
Have basic needs that are component of health.
The theory presents the patient as a sum of parts with biopsychosocial needs.

2. Environment
Settings in which an individual learns unique pattern for living.
All external conditions and influences that affect life and development.

3. Health
Definition based on individual’s ability to function independently as outlined in the 14 components.

4. Nursing
Temporarily assisting an individual who lacks the necessary strength, will and knowledge to satisfy 1 or more of 14 basic needs.
Assists and supports the individual in life activities and the attainment of independence.
Nursing Metaparadigms
- the time when relationship begins
- the nurse and patient perceives each others uniqueness
- the ability to share in the person’s experience
- the ability to predict the behavior of the individual and to perceive his thinking and feelings.
- when the nurse wants to lessen the cause of patient’s suffering.
- intellectual approach combined with therapeutic use of self
- Rapport is described as nursing interventions that lessens the patient’s suffering.
Nursing Research

One study by O’Connor, Wicker and Germino, which is nearly related to some of Travelbee’s ideas, discovers how individuals who were recently diagnosed with cancer described their personal search for meaning. The results of this study make known that the search for meaning seems to be both a spiritual and psychosocial process. The researchers acknowledged nursing interventions that would support this process. No other theory of Travelbee that would create further development is available.
IDENTIFICATION PHASE
• Selection of appropriate professional assistance
• Patient begins to have a feeling of belonging and a capability of dealing with the problem which decreases the feeling of helplessness and hopelessness
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
1956, she completed her BSN degree at Louisiana State University
1959, she completed her Master of Science Degree in Nursing at Yale University.
1973, She started Doctoral program in Florida
WORK EXPERIENCES
1952, Psychiatric Nursing Instructor at Depaul Hospital Affilliate School, New Orleans.

Also she taught at Charity Hospital School of Nursing in Louisiana State University, New York University and University of Mississippi.

1970, the Project Director of Graduate Education at Louisiana State University School of Nursing until her death.
PUBLICATIONS
1963, started to publish articles and journals in nursing.
1966 and 1971, publication of her first book entitled Interpersonal Aspects of Nursing.
1969, when she published her second book Intervention in Psychiatric Nursing: Process in the One-to-One Relationship.
Nursing
Person
- Person is defined as a human being.
Health
Environment
Health is subjective and objective.
Subjective health
is an individually defined state of well being
Objective health
is an absence of discernible disease, disability
She defined human conditions and life experiences encountered by all men as sufferings, hope, pain and illness.
Nursing is an interpersonal process whereby the professional nurse practitioner assists an individual, family or community to prevent or cope with experience or illness and suffering, and if necessary to find meaning in these experiences.”
ORIGINAL ENCOUNTER
- First impression by the nurse of the sick person and vice-versa.
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