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Italian Renaissance/ Commedia dell'arte Project
Transcript of Italian Renaissance/ Commedia dell'arte Project
Madison Akins-Banman The World at the Time Changes Commedia del'arte Three Unities:
Unity of Time: events occurred in real time as much as possible
Unity of Place: settings were limited to one general location
Unity of Action: stories focused on one central storyline rather than complex subplots
There were two big advancements in theater during the Italian Renaissance:
STAGE DESIGN Italian comic theater in which the actors/actresses specialize in improvisation
Began with a basic plot of a familiar story and then continued the story with improvisation
Most of the plots centered around the struggle of young lovers (ex: Romeo and Juliet)
They also performed Roman and Greek Mythology Italian Renaissance/Commedia del' Arte In the 14th century, the Renaissance started in Florence, Italy because of the history of Rome and the Roman Empire. Italy had become very wealthy, and the wealthy were willing to spend their money supporting artists and geniuses.
They started studying ancient ruins and rediscovered Greek and Roman texts, which offered great wisdom.
Humanism became a big thing in Europe.
•During the Renaissance, Italy consisted of 250 separate states, most of which were ruled by a city. Italy did not become a unified nation until the nineteenth century. The Start of the Renaissance Improvised comedic moments including music, acrobatics and fighting usually unrelated to the scene
"trademark" lazzi: a specific moment that an audience expects from a specific troupe or actor during a show Stage Design Italian Renaissance Plays and Playwrights The purpose of the plays was to educate and to entertain. Today's stage scenery is largely a product of the Italian Renaissance.
1415-Filippo Brunelleschi discovered linear perspective: a mathematical system for creating the illusion of space and distance on a flat surface
1545-Sebastiano Serlio published "Architetura", the first work detailing the construction of a court theater. End of the Italian Renaissance Characteristics of the Plays Lazzi Verisimilitude: centered on the quest for truth
characters on stage were to be representative of their real-life counterparts
strictly separated comedies from tragedies Characters of Commedia del'arte The French invaded Italy in 1494 and caused incessant warfare
Rome is conquered by the Holy Roman emperor Charles V in 1527
There was a shift in trade from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic
In 1545 the Council of Trent officially established the Roman inquisition. In this climate, humanism was akin to heresy.
The Italian Renaissance was over by the end of the 16th century. Divided into two categories: upper class and lower (servant) class
Innamorti and innamortae: young lovers struggling throughout the play; usually did not wear masks, so they were distinguished from the other characters
Zanni: proper term for the servants of the play; were usually involved in antics that determined the fate of the lovers
Arlecchino/Harlequin: clever schemers who are excellent at pranks and acrobatics
Brighella: thief or bully who is "street wise"
Fontesca: (only female servant character) serving maid who appears in many plays as Columbina who is a clever and high-spirited flirt Plays and Playwrights Albertino Mussato: "Eccerinus" in 1315 (first tragedy)
Pier Paulo Vergerio: "Paulus" in 1390 (first comedy) "The Comedy of the Profession" In Sebatiano Serlio' "Architetura", he described and illustrated three sets that he believed could be used for all plays.
Tradgedies-halls of government: court buildings, war memorials, civil monuments
Comedies-where the people live: inns, guild halls, churches, homes
Pastorals-in the woods
All three used the same basic layout:
Street at center stage with three buildings on each side
In the back, there was either an arch (tragedies) or a church (comedies)
A backdrop was hung to hide the back wall Lodovico Ariosto: "La Cassaria" in 1508 (comedy)
Giangiogio Trissino: "Sofonisba" in 1515 (tragedy)
Giambattista Giraldi Clinthio: "Orbecche" in 1541 (tragedy) Serlio built his playhouse in a Hall of State in the court palace. (This room already existed and was very large.)
The stage, located at one end of the room, was raised to the ruler's eye level and the perspective scenery was designed to provide the Royal Chair with a perfect view.
The front half of the stage floor was level, but the rear half sloped up towards the back wall-increasing the illusion of depth. The scenery was placed on this sloped section.
Serlio's stage consisted of 3 sets of angles wings, 1 set of flat wings, and a backdrop.
His sets were made to be permanent and not to be moved from one stage to another. Pastoral Drama Opera a literary work in which a shepherd's life is presented in a conventionalized manner Torquato Tasso: "Aminta" in 1573
Giambattista Guarini: "The Faithful Shepherd" in 1590 Opera came about almost accident. A group of wealthy Italians who called themselves the "Camerate" (academy) was very interested in the art of ancient Greece and Rome.
They knew from Aristotle that music was a major part of Greek drama, but they weren't sure what the music like, so they made up their own when they were trying to create "authentic Greek" tragedies. Opera Jacopo Peri: "Dafne" (first known)
Claudio Monteverdi: "Orfeo" The first opera,"Dafne", took place in Florence, Italy in 1594.
Most early operas were based on Greek mythology because the Italians were inspired by ancient Greece. Commedia dell'Arte Flaminio Scala wrote 30 Commedia scenarios
Carlo Goldoni: "The Servant of Two Masters" and "The Comic Theater"
Carlo Gozzi: "The Love of Three Oranges" and "The King Stag" In the past, music had been used only to give an extra bit perfection to the entertainment, not to be its entirety.
Poets started to sacrifice their own art for the art of music. They would alter the flow of a play so as to make the music sound better. Every opera had a musical part consiting of solos, duets, trios, and choruses. There was also a dramatic part that consisted of chanted, semi-sung, dialog.
The musical part gave the show color and helped establish characters.
The dramatic part moved the play along, relating the action of the opera to the audience.
Aria-a solo sung by one of the opera's major characters
Recitative-the chanted dialog which joined the opera's musical moments Donatello was considered the founder of modern sculpture with his sculpture of David. In the mid-1400s Leonardo da Vinci,“Renaissance Man,” painted the Mona Lisa, and Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Gutenberg invented the printing press, and his first publication was the Bible. This was known as the greatest invention of the time. It made books cheaper and easier to afford for the poor. In the early 1330s the bubonic plague began in China and spread to western Asia and Europe. Once people are infected, they infect others very rapidly. People called it "The Black Death" because of the black spots it produced on the skin. After five years 25 million people were dead--one-third of Europe's people. The survivors lived in constant fear of the plague's return, and the disease did not disappear until the 1600s. The Medici family first attained wealth and political power in Florence in the 13th century through its success in commerce and banking. Beginning in 1434 with the rise to power of Cosimo de' Medici (or Cosimo the Elder), the family's support of the arts and humanities made Florence into the cradle of the Renaissance, a cultural flowering rivaled only by that of ancient Greece. The Medicis produced four popes (Leo X, Clement VII, Pius IV and Leon XI), and their genes have been mixed into many of Europe's royal families. The last Medici ruler died without a male heir in 1737, ending the family dynasty after almost three centuries. Constantinople fell in 1453 to the armies of Ottoman Empire, ending a 1,129 year empire.
Christopher Columbus discovered the “new world”.
The Spanish Inquisition expelled the Jews in the early 1500s Mussato Clinthio Tass Tasso Goldoni Work Cited Page History of the Theater Seventh Edition by Oscar G. Brockett
The Stage and the School Ninth Edition by Harry H. Shanker and Katharine Anne Ommanney
Cultural Atlas of the Renaissance by C.F. Black and others
World Theater by Bamber Gascoigne