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Confederation of Ontario- Politics
Transcript of Confederation of Ontario- Politics
The Liberal- Conservatives
They were very business oriented party
Wanted to co – operate with the Canadians
Believed that stronger ties would push towards confederation
Leader of the party was Sir John A MacDonald ( later became the prime minister of Canada)
The Clear Grits Party
They were radical reforms who wanted a more democratic type government
They were not very sympathetic towards the Canadians ( French speaking population)
The leader of the party was George Brown
A Responsible Government
No, Canada West did not a have a responsible government. Lord Durham recommended to establish a responsible government. He wanted to unite the provinces of Canada East and West for commercial purposes and for the overall greater English speaking majority. There for having a reason to establish a responsible government. Britain agreed with the union of the colonies, but not to the responsible government. Instead they created the "Act of Union in 1840.
Main Political Parties
Concerns of the People
First of all many people were concerned about public education, the church, and state-relations. The protestant part of Canada West believed in nondemocratic public schools and thus rejected state connected and state supported religion. The problem was that Canada East wanted to expand their catholic schools into Canada West, and the protestants didn't like that.
There were 3 main issues concerning the people.
The other main problem concerning the people of Canada West was having it's voice heard in Parliament. The eastern part of Ontario ( which was represented by Sir John A. MacDonald) were interested in expanding business and commerce. Where as the western part of Ontario ( which was represented by George Brown) were mainly concerned about agricultural. This caused constant fighting between the two party leaders and between the people.
By Carina Suleiman 801
Voice of Native People
The majority of people involved in the confederation project were white, male and either British or French. The voice of the native people were not heard during the constitutional conferences in London, Charlottetown, or Quebec. Only in 1869, were the native people somehow recognized.An Act for the temporary government of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory when united with Canada, was established. Although the only mention of native people were mentioned in section91, paragraph 24. It stated... "
the exclusive Legislative Authority of the Parliament of Canada extends to all Matters coming within the Classes of Subjects next hereinafter enumerated: Indians, and Lands reserved for the Indians
." This caused the native peoples to fight for every sense of recognition possible.
The main conflict and the most difficult to solve was the issue on political deadlock.
In 1841 each part of the government had an equal number of seats.
The two governments were often on opposing sides of the issues.
In the beginning it was unfair to Canada East to have an equal number of seats.
Before Canada East actually had a greater population than Canada West.
Because of this Canada East believed that they should have more seats in the assembly.
This was also known as representation by population
In 1861 though the census had revealed that Canada West had now a greater population.
This had occurred because of immigration of English speaking people who had came to Canada West.
Canada West was now demanding representation by population. George Brown recognized that Canada West's population had grown by 300,000
Canada East would never agree to something like this
And so political deadlock continued.
This was another major conflict that effected Canada West and it's road towards confederation.
Majority of the members of parliament for Canada West voted in favour of the Québec Conference.
All of Canada West’s demands were met in the 72 resolutions from the Québec Conference.
Some of the demands met were :
Local costs were controlled by creating provincial legislators
There was some kind of representation by population by establishing a provincial government.
Not all reformers voted for the resolutions, created in the Québec conference
Even the conservative-liberals, who favoured confederation the most, reserved the right to critique the project.
Some Tories even thought the project should be subject to a vote by the people, as the Parti Rouge in Canada East and some New Brunswick politicians were demanding.
This caused voting to come to a stop.
Canada West's Involvement in Conferences
Canada West decided to take advantage of this meeting. The Grits and Liberal- Conservative parties both tried to convince the Atlantic colonies to join them in a larger union. John A. MacDonald and George Brown were the leaders from Canada West. Politicians from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were interested in discussing the topic further, but politicians from Prince Edward Island were not interested. George Brown tried to convince them to join confederation by offering the Atlantic provinces more machines and in return they would bring coal, fish and other products to Canada West.
On February 12,1867 the British North American Act was introduced into British Parliment. It was passed through the House of Commons and then through the House of Lords before Queen Victoria had approved it. On May 22, 1867 Queen Victoria announced the Domain of Canada. Canada was now a country and Canada West became Ontario.
During the Quebec conference , politicians had come up with the 72 resolutions. The 72 resolutions were terms that were decided for Confederation. Before the 72 resolutions could be approved by colonial governments, the ideas were supposed to be debated by the people who attended the conference in their home colony. Unlike some other colonies, Canada West had a lot to gain from confederation and most politicians were in favour of the 72 resolutions. Some people voted for protection against the U.S.A, some voted for trade and others for an intercolonial railway.
Sir John A. MacDonald
1818 - 1890
1822 - 1892
1820 - 1903
1819 - 1883
William P. Howland
1811 - 1907
Fathers of Confederation
He was born in Scotland on January 11th ,1815
His family immigrated to Canada in 1820
He started off as a lawyer , business man and commercial bank guard
MacDonald was first elected as a member of the Province Canada representing Kingston
He then became leader of the Liberal-Conservative party in 1854
He was probably the most eager for Canada to become united
As a leading delegate at all three conferences on Canadian Confederation, and he was responsible for drafting much of the BNA Act, MacDonald received a knighthood for his work, and was asked to be the first Prime Minister of Canada in 1867.
Some of his accomplishments as Prime Minister were :
building a trans-continental railway, the Canadian Pacific Railway
built a nation with the entry into Confederation of Prince Edward Island, the Northwest Territories (including Alberta and Saskatchewan), Manitoba, and British Columbia
opening Western Canada for settlement
he created the North-West Mounted Police
MacDonald served as Prime Minister from 1867-1871 and again in 1878 -1891
His wife had died ill and he had lost one of his children
He died just 3 months after the 1891 elections on January 6 , 1891
Who was John MacDonald?
Born in Scotland on November 29,1818
Immigrated to New York with his father in 1837 at age 20
He moved to Toronto in 1843 and founded “The Globe”
In 1857 he entered Canadian Parliament and was the leader of the Reform Party ( a.k.a Clear Grits)
He wanted representation by population
He also argued for annexation of the Hudson Bay Company
In 1846 he signed on to a coalition, this would work towards uniting the colonies.
Although he lost the federal election he looked back on his life as a wonderful achievement
He officially retired from parliament and focused on his wife and three children, as well as his newspaper
He died on May 9, 1880
Who was George Brown?
Should Ontario have joined Confederation?
Based on political factors
Yes, I do think that Ontario should have joined Confederation. Some of the good reasons for Ontario joining confederation are...
Ending Political Deadlock
If Canada West joined confederation they would become their own separate province, thus ending political deadlock. They wouldn't have to share their government with Canada East, and there fore never be on opposing sides of issues because they don't share a government, and don't share land either. This is becasue of the coalition government, which later led to a federal union. Instead all the colonies would share a central government. They would have representatives from provinces debating the issues.
Another reason Canada West should join confederation, is because they have a lot to gain from it. The 72 resolutions were made in the Quebec conference and all the resolutions applied to Canada West. Some of the resolutions were that they had some type of representation by population and local costs were dealt with. They also promised protection agains the U.S.A. Also they would have an advantage because their leader was the ( Sir John A MacDonald) , and he then became the prime minister of Canada. So when it comes to making decisions they may have an advantage.
THE END :)
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