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Post-Colonialism and International Relations Theory
Transcript of Post-Colonialism and International Relations Theory
“The problem of the 20th century is the color-line, the question of how far differences of race…are going to be made, hereafter, the basis of denying to over half the world the right of sharing to their utmost ability the opportunities and privileges of modern civilization”
W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963)
Hierarchy of Races
Jim Crowe Rules
Institutionalised Social Inequality
Race as a Social Construction
Rejection of Essentialism
Beliefs lead to Outcomes
No Biological Basis (UNESCO)
Or a change in the nature of how political, social and economic inequalities are maintained?
A Critique of Colonialism
An attempt to recover silenced forms of
knowledge and values
Alternative Economic Models
A Project of Resistance
Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth (1961)
Security and Development
Spivak and Subaltern Women
Development and Modernization Theory
Gramsci and the Subaltern
Power / Knowledge
Edward Said, Orientalism
Representation of the 'Orient' in
Western Literature and Art
The Construction of Social Difference
Intellectual Foundation for Imperialism
Knowledge and Material Power are Entwined
1.The existence of separate hierarchical spheres of civilization
2.A defense of the superiority of Western cultural values against corrupt values of other civilizations
3.The need for secular and moderate members of other civilizations to follow or join the West
Representation and the Subaltern
Napoleon's Conquest of Egypt in 1798
"Empire, then, is a relationship, formal or informal, in which one state controls the effective political sovereignty of another political society. It can be achieved by force, by political collaboration, by economic, social, or cultural dependence. Imperialism is simply the process or policy of establishing or maintaining an empire".
Doyle, Empires (1986)
The Peace of Westphalia 1648
Discovery of the Americas 1490s
The Internal 'Other'
The External 'Other'
Offers a spatial solution to the problem of difference within Europe:
Borders are imposed and policed
Difference leads to co-existence
A temporal solution to the problem of difference
Less advanced forms of the Western self require either colonisation or modernisation