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Environmental Lighting & Human Behaviors
Transcript of Environmental Lighting & Human Behaviors
Our environments, the places we inhabit, influence our behavior and shape our actions, thoughts, and emotions. Design professions emerging with a new awareness about design, building, and living that reconnects the mind and body, fostering a sense of place and time, and true well-being. The effecive use of light has been the traditional way to enhance aethetic experience and shape the place. If we hope to communicate our intentions to people who visit the landscape, we must know how they will react to the features of environmental lighting which we choose to employ. Yet there is no sufficient study explaining the phenomenology or behavioral science of illumination. It is important to understand the forms of lighting available, and their appropriateness to specific activities, in order to create good urban space. I want to explore how the lighting environments enhance the quality of people’s life, and sustain and support well-being for all inhabitants. Budapest at Night How lighting influence human behaviors? Human Behavior Artificial Light (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr How light works? How light influence Human? Human Perception Physically Motivation Psychologically Mental reaction innate learned Gordon Cullen The Scanner ---- relate human factors to physical factors such as landscape, townscape, buildings and their internal spaces. Two chains intergration chain of human activities Space chain of physical spaces Structuralism Structuralism is based on the idea that just as all men's physical organisms are similar, and therefore 'work' in similar ways, so their mental structures are similar an that certian ways of thinking will be common to all men, who will therefore come to similar result in their creative and problem-solving activities. Peter R. Boyce time of day retinal
light spectrum Phase Shift circadian system Alerting effect Human Performance motivation mood expectation management Personality visual discomfort Glare Flicker visual message Culture Context Visual Perceiption of environment visual size Luminace contrast Color difference Retinal Image Quality Retinal illuminance Fatigue Visual Performance Light Human perception How light works? Light creates form out of darkness and then influences that form by the quality and direction of light. Contrast of tones affects the apparent depth of space. Objects that have different reflectances but are lit with the same amount of light will apear different in brightess. Sources of Light - Natural Light
- Artificial Light Characteristics - Photometric quantities
- Colormetric quantities Control - Distribution
- Output Landscape Lighting How light influence human?
The structure of the circadian system
The suprachiasmatic nuclei
The pineal gland
Characteristics of the circadian system
Models of the circadian system
Effects of light exposure on the circadian system
The amount of light
The consequences of trying to work in circadian night
Caveats Visual system The structure of the visual system
The visual field
Optics of the eye
The structure of the retina
The functioning of the retina
The central visual pathways
Continuous adjustments of the visual system
Photopic, scotopic, and mesopic vision
Capabilities of the visual system
Factors determining visual threshold
Perception through the visual system
The perceptual constancies
Modes of appearance Circadian system Urban lighting requirements and categories General urban light requirements Safty and Security Place identity Aesthetics and Quality of life Categories of lighting environments Residential area Commercial area Industrial area Landmarks area Historical and memorial area Methodolgy 4 methods I used in this research are listed as: That is, measuring, physically, the given lighting enviornment in terms of physically characters of the spaces. Their envionmental characteristics in terms of brightness, color, clarity and order of setting. At this level we can bring to clear all the apparatus and techniques available for measuring physical dimensions of environmental lighting. Record human beings and the ways they behave in these spaces. We can use wides, cine and time-lapse cameras or toher mechanical deivces which simply show us where people choose to walk, stand, sit or otherwise occupy space. These can tell us exactly what people do and we may be able to draw certain conclusions as to why they did it from our knowledge of human phychology, and so on. We may be able to draw certain conclusions as to why they did it from our knowledge of human physiology, psychology, and so on. But this will tell us nothing about their motives for wanting to stand and talk. Mental factors (Motivation) analysis: This obviously opens up the floodgates of psychological method: iterviews, questionaires, semantic techniques which with their massive statistical analysis are supposed to show us what people ---- on average ---- tend to be thinking. Based on the results from surveying and questionaire, I could figure out the relationship between environmental lighting and human behaviors. Surveying Recording Questionaire Analysis Through literature review the basic framwork of this study is built. The theoretical context will be informed. I hope through this process I will get the information shown below: Lighting design Principles Techniques Human behavior Enviornmental Psychology Behavior Science Framwork about how to study the relationship between environmental lighting and human behaviors. Functionality Behavior Science and environmental psychology Evaluation
(Human perception) physical
attributes Human behaviors activities + Gordon Cullen The Scanner ---- relate human factors to physical factors such as landscape, townscape, buildings and their internal spaces. Through two chains intergration chain of human activities Space chain of physical spaces Structuralism Structuralism is based on the idea that just as all men's physical organisms are similar, and therefore 'work' in similar ways, so their mental structures are similar an that certian ways of thinking will be common to all men, who will therefore come to similar result in their creative and problem-solving activities. Peter R. Boyce time of day retinal
light spectrum Phase Shift circadian system Alerting effect Human Performance motivation mood expectation management Personality visual discomfort Glare Flicker visual message Culture Context Visual Perceiption of environment visual size Luminace contrast Color difference Retinal Image Quality Retinal illuminance Fatigue Visual Performance Th The questionaire was designed to reveal the relationship between people's evaluation of place and their behaviors. It was divided into three parts. And a group of people will evaluate the pictures from the sites which have been studied and documented. Questionaire This part of questionaire required a group of people (20-30) to rate the scores (1 to 7) of 4 physical aspects of environmental lighting on 5 semantic scales. The qustionaire is divided into 3 parts: Physical attributes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 How sufficient is it? How acceptable is it? How much would
you like it increse or
decrease? How good is it? How important is it
in the space? Brightness Visual Clarity Color appearance Order of setting n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n Psychological attributes Simple Complex Beautiful Ugly Active Passive Ambiguous Clear Exciting Calming Interesting Boring Confined Spacious Gloomy Cheerful Superficial Welcoming Ordered Considered Timid Delightful Dreadful Bold Abritary Chaotic Forbidding Profound Pleasing Annoying Straightforward Contradictory Strong Weak Safty Unsafty There is 18 adjective pairs applicable to the description of environmental lighting. The scales between each polar adjectives are divided into 7 steps.
People will be asked to check in the blank ( from A to B the blanks indicate: etremly A, quite A, slightly A, neither A nor B, slightly B, quite B, extremly B.) A B Activities A list of activities will be provided showing what may occur in the environment. Then people will rate a score from 1 to 7 to indicate how much each of the activities they expect to occur in particular case. Activities Score Dance Parade Picnic BBQ Perfermance Exercise Exhibition Walking Bicycling Comtemplate Reading Sunbath Dating n n n n n n n n n n n n n Building Performance Research Unit (1970) Surveying ------ Recording ------ Questionaire ----- Analysis Procedure of research I will chose sites as study cases based on the 5 categories of the lighting environment. Each category will have 2 cases to conduct research. And then I will study the physical attributes and human behaviors by observing each site and take photos to document it for the later use of questionaire. Analysis Observe the physical charaters of the lighting environment and the way people behavior in the place. Record the finding from the surveying and photograh the sites from different perspectives. Conduct questionaire to figure out the psychological attributes of the lighting environment. Figure out the relationship between the environmental lighting and human behaviors.
1. Compare the answers from questionaire to the results from surveying
2. Find out cases which people's answers about the activities expected accord with the surveying result.
3. Based on the analysis on the cases, the relationship between the physcial attributes, psychological attributes and human behaviors will be built.
4. Make conclusion about what attributes of the lighting are appropriate for the particular category of urban environment. Literature Review Thanks! Oklahoma City National Memorial & Museum Bellagio at night