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Miami, Migration, & Haiti SPR14
Transcript of Miami, Migration, & Haiti SPR14
--first wave: 1950s & 1960s
Island of Hispaniola ("little Spain")
--Arawak (Taino) displaced other populations
--Who named island "little Spain"?
--use of Arawak to mine gold
--very few left by early 16th century
Spanish settlers-- started to cultivate sugar cane
--needed labor, so imported Africans as slaves
Spanish withdrew partially, so French pirates invaded.
---eventually Spain signed treaty giving France 1/3 (Saint-Dominque).
---Spain kept Santo-Domingo
large sugar plantations
--controlled African population with brutality
French Revolution in 1790-- inspired revolts
--Affranchi led b/c wanted equal rights with white land owners
--started slave rebellion --led by Toussaint Louverture
French abolished slavery to gain support against Spanish on island
--France took over Santo-Domingo in 1795.
Toussaint declared Saint-Dominque independent in 1801
--French captured & imprisoned him.
1804-- Dessalines proclaimed independence (Haiti)
Boyer - 1818 - 1843
--united North & South
--fostered mulatto elite
International community wouldn't recognize Haiti as independent nation
--French threatened take-over
--until Boyer agreed to pay the French 150 million francs in reparations (=21 Billion).
US occupied 1915- 1934
1957- 1971- Papa Doc (Duvalier) elected president of Haiti.
---Established dictatorship- considered most repressive regime, combining political oppression and people’s fear of Voodoo.
---Appealed to black middle class for legitimacy- ended elite (mulatto) rule in Haiti
---Members of former regime and upper class started to migrate to US
---Papa Doc accused of pocketing aid money, so Kennedy suspended aid to the country in 1961
1971-1986 (2nd wave migration)
---Papa Doc’s son, Duvalier Jr. (Baby Doc),
---Under control, economic and political atmosphere continued to decline
---US restored aid program in 1971, because Baby Doc seemed to stop human rights violations
---But, gained wealth from fraudulent economic activities- taking proceeds from government economic ventures
---Left country vulnerable to endemic poverty and economic crisis
---Regime condemned by citizens and international community
---Baby Doc forced into exile --taking millions
--1990- Aristide (Catholic Priest) won presidential election with 67% of votes
--Presidency threatened elite b/c of populist ideology
--Ousted by coup in 1991 (by wealthy mulattos, Cedras)
- hundreds killed in coup and Aristide went into exile
--Ensuing military control to 1994 – 3,000 to 5,000 Haitians killed
Many Haitians started to migrate to US by boat (3rd wave migration)- most denied entry if caught and sent back
---US started economic sanctions (embargo) on Haiti
1994- US troops entered Haiti to restore Aristide
--1995-- Succeeded by Preval
--2000-- Aristide won election again
--wanted higher wages, higher taxation of rich etc
--requested reparations from France
--Mulatto elite protested (in Haiti & in US)
--overthrown by Metayer (Cannibal Army, to avenge death of brother), Guy Phillipe, Chamblain
--forced to resign by US??
historical discrepancy in migration policies between Haiti & Cuban
Haitians, initially accepted as political refugees in late 50s-mid 60s, but switched in mid-60s (then tightened- "economic migrants")