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AP Bio

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Hannah Woggon

on 11 January 2013

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Transcript of AP Bio

The Chemistry of Life Cellular Energetics Cells and Cell Division Molecular Genetics Evolutionary Biology AP
Tree Bonds Hydrogen Bond a bond formed by an attraction between a partial positive hydrogen atom and an atom with a partial negative charge. Hannah Woggon Covalent Bond A bond formed between two atoms sharing a pair of electrons. Polar Covalent Bond Nonpolar Covalent Bond A bond in which one atom is more electronegative, and the electrons are not shared equally. A bond in which two atoms of the same electronegativity are bonded, and the electrons are shared equally. Properties of Water Cohesion Adhesion molecules of a substance
clinging together molecules of one substance clinging
to another substance Surface Tension how difficult it is to break the surface
of a liquid Evaporative Cooling Liquid cooling down as it evaporates Solution a mixture of two or more substances Solute Solvent The substance in a solution that is being dissolved the dissolving agent of a solution Hydrophilic Hydrophobic when a substance
likes water when a substance
repels water Acid Base a substance that increases
the hydrogen ion concentration
of a solution a substance that decreases
the hydrogen ion concentration
of a solution Monomer Polymer smaller molecules that are
the building blocks of polymers a long molecule made of many
monomers linked by covalent bonds Reactions Condensation Reaction monomers being connected by a covalent
bond formed through the loss of a water molecule Dehydration Reaction a more specific name for a condensation
reaction, because water is the molecule
being lost Hydrolysis bonds between monomers are
broken by the addition of a water
molecule. Carbohydrate organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbs are sugar used as fuel and building materials. Starch a polymer of glucose that
plants use for storage Glycogen a polymer of glucose that animals
use for storage. It is more branched. Monosaccharide one sugar, the simplest type of carbohydrate Polysaccharide macromolecules made of many
monomers joined together Disaccharide two monosaccharaides joined by a glycosidic linkage Glycosidic Linkage a covalent bond formed by a
dehydration reaction between
two monosaccharaides Lipid a diverse group of organic molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which are grouped together because they are all hydrophobic Double helix The stucture of DNA, formed by two polynucleotides that spiral around
an imaginary axis. Polypeptide Proteins, or polymers of amino acids. They are organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Amino Acid monomers of proteins, with a central
carbon, an amino group, a carboxyl
group, a hydrogen atom, and a variable
group (R group or side chain). Peptide Bond a covalent bond formed by the
joining of two amino acids at the
carboxyl and amino groups through dehydration synthesis. Denaturation When a protein unravels and loses its
shape due to changes in the environment,
like pH or temperature. Energy Catabolic pathways metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down molecules Anabolic pathways pathways that consume energy to build molecules ATP Adenosine Triphosphate-
used in cells as energy Energy Coupling using an exergonic process to
drive an endergonic process Enzyme a biological catalyst that speeds up a reaction without being consumed Substrate the reactant that an enzyme acts on Active site the area where the substrate
binds to the enzyme Induced fit When the active site
changes shape to better
fit the substrate Activation energy the amount of energy need for
a reaction to take place. Enzymes
lower the activation energy. Competitive Inhibitors block substrates from entering the active site Noncompetitive Inhibitor bind to another part of the enzyme, which causes teh active site to change shape and no longer fit the substrate Allosteric site The site where the noncompetitive inhibitor attaches to the enzyme Feedback inhibition When a metabolic pathway is switched off by the inhibitory binding of its end product to an early enzyme in the pathway Prokaryotic cell a cell that doesn't have a nucleus or
other bound organelles Eukaryotic cell a cell with a nucleus containing DNA,
and bound organelles Organelles Cytosol a semifluid substance that holds
all the organelles in the cell Ribosomes cellular components that
carry out protein synthesis Nucleus contains most of the genes
in the eukaryotic cell Nucleolus a structure within the
nucleus where rRNA is
made Chromosomes structures made of
condesed chromatin Chromatin loose genetic material
in a cell Centromeres region in the middle of a chromosome
where sister chromatids join Endomembrane System a system that carries out a variety of tasks, like protein synthesis and transport, detoxification, and lipid metabolism. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) an extensive network of membranos
tubules and sacs Smooth ER does not have attached ribosomes. It is involved in lipid synthesis and detoxification Rough ER has ribosomes on the outer surface, and is involved in making proteins Transport Vesicles vesicles that transport things from one
part of the cell to another Golgi apparatus modifies proteins Plasma membrane The boundary of every cell, which
acts as a selective barrier Glycoprotein a membrane carbohydrate bonded to a protein Mitochondria the site of cellular respiration, which
generates energy for the cell Cristae infoldings of the inner membrane of the mitochondria Chloroplast site of photosynthesis in plants Plastids a family of closely related
plant organelles Phagocytosis cell eating- cells taking in other
food particles or smaller
organisms Exocytosis cells secreting molecules by
vesicals fusing with the cell
membrane Water Balance Hypertonic water leaves the cell faster than it enters Hypotonic water enters the cell faster than it leaves Isotonic no net movement of water across the membrane Membrane Fluid Mosaic Model the membrance is a fluid structure
with a mosaic of proteins Integral Proteins proteins that go through the lipid bilayer Peripheral Proteins proteins that are only bound to the surface of the membrane Passive Transport transport in which the cell doesn't need energy to make it happen Diffusion the movement of molecules from an
area of higher concentration to an area
of lower concentration Concetration Gradient the region along which the density of a
chemical substance decreases Facilitated diffusion larger molecules crossing the membrane with the help of transport proteins Gated Channels channel proteins that open or
close in response to stimulus Osmosis the diffusion of water Osmoregulation the control of water balance Turgid when a cell is very firm Plasmolysis when the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall as a plant cell shrivels Active Transport When the cell must use energy to
move things against the gradient Sodium-potassium pump a transport system that exchanges sodium for potassium across the membrane Membrane Potential the voltage across a membrane Electrochemical Gradient a chemical force (the concentration gradient) and an electrical force (the membrane potential) acting on an ion Cotransport a single ATP-powered pump that transports a specific solute can indirectly drive the active transport of several other solutes in a mechanism Somatic cells all body cells except the
reproductive cells Gametes reproductive cells- sperm and egg Cell Cycle the life cycle of a cell Cell Division When a cell divides into daughter cells Mitosis the division of the neucleus
in somatic cells Cytokinesis the division of the cytoplasm to form new daughter cells Interphase the longest stage of the cell cycle, where the cell grows and copies its chromosomes G 1 phase cells grow S phase synthesis- the DNA is replicated G 2 phase Cell grows more and prepares for division G 0 phase cells in this stage are not dividing or preparing to divide M Phase Mitosis phase, where the cell divides Prophase The chromatin condenses into chromosomes, each duplicated chromosome appears as two sister chromatids, centrosomes move away from each other Sister Chromatids two identical copies of a chromosome,
connected at the centromere Prometaphase nuclear envelope fragments, chromosomes become more condensed, chromatids have a kinetochore and microtubules connect to it Metaphase Chromosomes align on the metaphase plate in the center, centrosomes are at opposite sides of the cell Anaphase Sister chromatids part and become their own chromosome, the two sets of chromosomes begin moving towards the ends of the cell Telophase two daughter nuclei form, nuclear envelopes arise from fragments, chromosomes condense Selective Permeability only letting select things pass through Transport Proteins proteins that transport substances across the membrane Fermentation a partial degration of sugars that occurs without the use of oxygen Lactic Acid Fermentation pyruvate is reduced by NADH to form lactate, with no release of CO2 Alcohol Fermentation pyruvate is converted to ethanol in two steps: releasing carbon dioxide from the pyruvate which is converted to acetaldehyde, and reducing acetaldehyde to ethanol using NADH Cellular Respiration the pathways of anaerobic and aerobic respiration, which break down organic molecules for ATP production Anaerobic without oxygen Aerobic with oxygen Redox Reactions reactions where there is a transfer of one of more electrons from one reactant to another Oxidation the loss of electrons from one substance Reduction the addition of electrons to another substance Oxidizing Agent the electron acceptor Reducing Agent the electron donor NAD+ Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-
an electron carrier Cellular Respiration Glycolysis breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate Acetyl CoA the entry compound for the krebs cycle, formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme Krebs Cycle (citric acid cycle) takes place in the mitochondrial matrix and completes the breakdown of glucose by oxidizing a derivative of pyruvate to to carbon dioxide Oxidative Phosphorylation ATP production using energy from the redox reaction of an electron transport chain Substrate-level Phosphorylation formation of ATP by an enzyme directly transfering a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate ATP Synthase the enzyme that makes ATP from ADP Chemiosmosis the process in which energy, in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane, is used to drive ATP synthesis Autotrophs organisms that make their own energy
without consuming other organisms Photosynthesis the process of capturing light energy and converting it to chemical energy Plants and Chloroplasts Mesophyll the tissue in the interior of the leaf, where chloroplasts are mainly found Stomata microscopic pores in the leaf that
absorb carbon dioxide and release
oxygen Stroma the dense fluid inside the chloroplast Chlorophyll the green pigment found inside chloroplasts Light Reactions the steps of photosynthesis that convert sunlight to chemical energy NADP+ nicotinamide adenine dinuleotide phosphate- an electron acceptor Photophosphrylation the process of generating ATP using chemiosmosis to power the addition of a phosphate group tp ADP Photon a quantity of light energy that behaves like a particle Absorption spectrum a graph plotting a pigment's light absorption versus wavelength Chlorophyll a pigment that participates directly in
the light reactions Chlorophyll b an accessory pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a Reaction Center a protein complex with a special pair of chlorophyll a molecules Primary Electron Acceptor the molecule capable of accepting electrons and becoming reduced Photosystem II one of the two light-capturing units-
has two P680 chlorophyll a
molecules at the reaction center Photosystem I the other light capturing unit in a chloroplast- has two P700 chlorphyll a molecules at its reaction center Calvin Cycle the second stage of photosynthesis, involving fixation of carbon dioxide and reduction of fixed carbon into carbohydrates Carbon Fixation the initial incorporation of carbon into organic compounds C3 plants plants where initial fixation of carbon occurs via rubisco. The first organic product is a three-carbon compound, 3-phosphoglycerate Photorespiration a pathway that consumes oxygen and ATP, and releases carbon dioxide CAM Plants a plant that uses crassulancean acid metablolism, where carbon dioxide is converted to organic acids C4 Plants plants where there are reactions that come before the calvin cycle, that incorporate carbon dioxide into a 4-carbon compound Replication Fork Helicase Primer Primase DNA Polymerase leading strand Lagging Strand DNA Ligase Y shaped region where strands of DNA are being unwound enzymes that unwind the double helix The RNA chain that is initially produced during DNA synthesis an enzyme that starts an RNA chain from a single RNA nucleotide, using the DNA strand as a template enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to a chain The new DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the 3' to 5' direction a fragmented DNA strand made by Okazaki fragments, synthesized in the 5' to 3' direction enzyme that joins the sugar-phosphate backbones of the Okazaki fragments into a continuous strand Transcription messenger RNA (mRNA) RNA Polymerase the synthesis of RNA under the
direction of DNA an RNA molecule that carries a genetic message from the DNA to the protein- synthesizing part of the cell an enzyme that opens the two strands of DNA and joins RNA nucleotides as they base-pair on the DNA RNA Processing When enzymes modify the pre-mRNA in specific ways before the genetic messages are dispatched to the cyctoplasm Introns noncoding sections of nucleic acid that lie between coding regions Exons the other regions that are coding Spliceosomes a complex made of proteins and RNA that splices RNA and cuts out the introns and exons Translation the synthesis of a polypeptide transfer RNA (tRNA) the interpreter of the codons on mRNA Codon mRNA base triplets anticodon at the end of tRNA, base-pairs with a complementary codon on mRNA ribosomal RNA (rRNA) RNA molecules that make up the ribosomal subunits P site holds tRNA carrying the growing
polypeptide chain A site holds the tRNA carrying the
next amino acid E site where discharged tRNA leaves the ribosome Mutation changes in the genetic info of the cell Point Mutation chemical changes in a single base
pair of a gene Base-pair substitute mutations the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner with another pair of nucleotides Missense mutation substitutions that change one amino
acid to another Nonsense mutations a point mutation that changes a condon for an amino acid to a stop codon
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