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Period G - Chapter 43 - Global Ecology and Conservation Biology

Shared with AP Biology - Period G - 2013-2014

Christopher Luther

on 6 November 2014

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Transcript of Period G - Chapter 43 - Global Ecology and Conservation Biology

Background photo by t.shigesa
Chapter 43 - Global Ecology and Conservation Biology
43.1 - Human Activities threaten Earth's Biodiversity
Habitat Loss
Introduced species
Global change
43.2 Population Conservation
Landscape and Regional Conservation Help Sustain Biodiversity
Movement corridors
Biodiversity Hot Spots
Zoned Reserve
Earth is Changing Rapidly and a Result of Human Actions

Agriculture removes plant nutrients from ecosystems
Release of toxic waste
Burning wood and fossil fuels
The Human Population is no longer -

Agriculture removes plant nutrients from ecosystems
Release of toxic waste
Burning wood and fossil fuels
Sustainable Development Can Improve Human Lives While Conserving Biodiversity 43.6
Agriculture removes plant nutrients from ecosystems
Release of toxic waste
Burning wood and fossil fuels
Movement Corridor
Three Types of Environmental Change that threatens Biodiversity
psychedelic rock gecko
(cnemaspis psychedelia)
Nutrient Enrichment
A narrow strip or series of small clumps of habitat connecting otherwise isolated patches

They can be important for conserving biodiversity

Sometimes the government may prohibit any altering of these areas

Promote dispersal and help to reduce inbreeding
The small-population approach studies processes that can make small populations become extinct

Human Population Growth
A small population is prone to inbreeding and genetic drift, which draw it down an extinction vortex
The key factor driving the extinction vortex is loss of the genetic variation necessary to enable evolutionary responses to environmental change
Small populations and low genetic diversity do not always lead to extinction

Human activity removes nutrients from one biosphere and moves them to another.
Whales are cool
With the loss of habitats, changes in Earth's physical environment and climate, and increasing human population, we face difficult trade-offs in managing the world's resources.
Sustainable Development- Economic development that meets the needs of people today without limiting the ability of future generations to meet their needs.

At 1650 the human population began to grow exponentially
After 1960 the annual rate of increase began to decrease
The decrease is due to disease and voluntary population control
Biodiversity Hot Spots
Farming is an example of striping the nutrients and then adding fertilizer to increase crop production can then create run offs that create eutrophication.
Conservation Biology: a discipline that seeks to preserve life; integrates ecology, evolutionary biology, molecular biology, genetics, and physiology to conserve biological diversity at all levels
Critical load
is the amount of added nutrient that can be absorbed by plants without damaging ecosystem integrity
Nutrients that exceed the critical load leach into groundwater or run off into aquatic ecosystems
Agricultural runoff and sewage lead to phytoplankton blooms in the Atlantic Ocean
Decomposition of phytoplankton blooms causes “dead zones” due to low oxygen levels

Limits on Population
Average estimate of human carrying capacity is 10-15 billion
ecological footprint- the land and water required by each person to produce all its resources and absorb all its waste
Depends on quality of life more industrialized nation use more energy
A person in The United States uses roughly 30 times more energy than a person in central Africa
Relatively small areas with numerous endemic species and large numbers of endangered and threatened species

Endemic Species - species found nowhere else in the world!

Global changes make preserving these hot spots difficult
phytoplankton blooms!
The Future of the
Our modern lives are different from those of early humans, who hunted and gathered together to survive.
1. Genetic Diversity
2. Species Diversity
3. Ecosystem Diversity
Our life reflects remnants of our ancestral attachment to nature and the diversity of life, just like the concept of biophilia.

Our appreciation of life guides the field of biology today.

The minimum viable population size (MVP) is the minimal population size at which a species is able to sustain its numbers
The MVP should take into account the effective population size, which is based on the breeding potential of the population
The equation for the sex ratio of breeding individuals in a population is N(e)= [4N(f)N(m)]/[N(f)+N(m)]
N(f) is the amount of females and N(m) is the amount of males in a population
In actual studies, N(e) is always only a fraction of the population

Zoned Reserve
Biology is the scientific expression of our desire to know nature.
How many humans can the biosphere support?
Population ecologists predict a global population of 8.1-10.6 billion people in 2050

An extensive region that includes relatively undisturbed areas surrounded by areas that have been changed by human activity and are used for economic gain

Reserves in the ocean are far less common

Human activity continues to happen but interactions with these zones are monitored and restricted
Endangered Species: "in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of is range"
Threatened Species: are those considered likely to become endangered in the near future.
Declining-Population Approach
The small-population approach focuses on the smallness of the population itself as the ultimate cause of a population's extinction
The declining-population approach focuses on a downward trend of endangered populations
The declining-population model focuses on the environmental factors that lead to a species' extinction in the first place
The Mississippi River caries nitrogen pollution to the Gulf of Mexico then creating a phytoplankton bloom.
A Dead Zone is created when phytoplankton die and there is a low oxygen concentration along the coast.
MVP and Effective Population Size
To reduce size of dead zone
farmers use fertilizers more effectively
manage the restoration of wetlands
Toxins in the Environment
Did you know?!?!!!

Many whale species today including the Baleen whale, Humpback whale, and right whale are endangered due to humans' over exploitation in whaling.
Weighing Conflicting Demands
Conservation Biology highlights the relationship between technology, science, and society
Programs that restocked wolves in Yellow Stone are controversial for those concerned with human and livestock safety
Most frequently a battle of habitat destruction
Example: Constructing a new highway will lead to the destruction of the last habitat of a certain species of muscle
We must conserve species that are important to biodiversity as a whole (keystone species)
Human activities release a large variety of toxic chemicals and thousands synthetic compounds
Bio Magnification- occurs when biomass at any trophic level is produced from a much larger biomass ingested from the level below
Top level carnivores are most affected by toxic compunds.
Rachel Carson wrote a book called "Silent Springs" in 1960
Concerned the DDT pesticides effecting the shells of baby birds
Pharmaceuticals and sex steroids, like forms of estrogen and birth control, are considered toxins is not disposed correctly.
Can cause an offset in the female to male ratio of fish species in some fish if ingested.
Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change
Gaseous waste products can casue changes to the atmosphere and to its interactions with the rest of the biosphere.
The Industrial Revolution began the the mass concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere
Today the concentration of CO2 is 390 ppm. (40% more since the 19th century)
Greenhouse Effect- When solar radiation hits the planet and reflects back into space, but some of the energy is reflected back to earth to keep it warm
How to slow global warming and climate changes
Using energy effectively
Replacing fossil fuels with renewable resources
Eliminate the production of CO2
Reduce deforestation
Biophilia: our sense of connection to nature and all life
Rosy periwinkle can cure childhood leukemia and Hodgkin's lymphoma
About 25% of all prescription in the United States contain substances originally derived from plants.
"Because millions of species may become extinct before we discover them, we stand to lose the valuable genetic potential held in their unique libraries of genes."
Ecosystem services: encompass all the processes through which natural ecosystems help sustain human life.
Many natural habitats have been altered positively or negatively by human activities.
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