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Transcript of 3.06 DBA
by Anna Pagel 9th Grade
Geography in Africa
The Sahara Desert affected trading in Africa a great deal. Merchants had to travel several days and had to be very prepared to cross the desert.
The Niger River would flood the inland Delta, and leave behind rich silt, making the inland Delta very fertile and easy to grow crops, unlike the Sahara desert.
The Kingdom of Ghana started in the grasslands north of the Niger River. The Soninke people were able to conquer their neighbors because they had iron and horses. They used the iron to make weapons (as well as tools and art), and used the horses for military purposes. Not much is known about early Sonikan society, except that they were animists, as were most others in the region. They were divided into clans and the king's clan was the most powerful. The rules of succession in the Kingdom of Ghana was matrilineal; the new king was the son of the old kin's sister.
One of the great cities of the Mali Empire was Timbuktu. The name has come to mean "the ends of the earth" or " the farthest away a person could ever get." A city with an amazing history, Timbuktu was a market city and important in the trans-Saharan trade. But even more importantly, it was a center of learning. After the Great Mosque was built in Timbuktu, man schools that taught the Quran opened and the city became a center for learing. Ultimately, scholars from all over the Muslim world came to Timbuktu to study. Later, great histories of the Songai people were written by the scholars in Timbuktu. Timbuktu was actually a world center of Islamic learning during Mali's height. It was the wealth generated from trade in gold and salt that made this center of learning possible.
Like the Mali Empire, the Songhai Empire also suffered from many battles over succesion. In Songhai, the brothers of the king often tried to depose him; in turn, some kings tried to protect themselves by killing all their brothers. The last great battle for succesion occurred when a great army general challenged a new king. Many men were killed in the battle for control of the country and the Songhai army was weakened. When troops from Morocco invaded to seize control of and revive the trans-Saharan trade in gold, the Songhai Empire could not win and was conquered, making this the last of the great West African empires.
States: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Lenne, Togo.
Cuisine: Maafe and Suya are popular dishes is West Africa. While Maafe is a type of stew, Suya is a type of shish kebab.
Music: Muluken Melesse is a popular artist of today's music in West Africa.
States: Tanzinia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia, Mazmbique, Madagascar, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, moros Mauritius, Seychelles, Réunion, Mayotte, South Sudan.
Cuisine: Kalhumbari and Mandazi are popular dishes in East Africa. Kalhumbari is a fresh tomato and onion salad, while Mandazi is a fried bread snack.
Music: In East Africa, P-Funk was a popular band in the early 1990s.
States: Botswana, Lesono, Nambia, South Africa, Swaziland.
Cuisine: Malva Pudding and Koesister are both popular dishes in South Africa. Malva Pudding is a type of pudding, while Koeksister is a syrup covered donut.
Music: The Black Cat Bones is a popular blues band in South Africa.
Like the Mali Empire, the Songhai Empire also suffered from many battles over succession. In Songhai, the brothers of the king often tried to depose of him; in turn some kingd tried to protect themselves by killing all their brothers. The last great battle for succesion occured when a great army general challenged a new king. Many men were killed i the battle for control of the coutry and the Songhai army was weakened. When troops from Morocco invaded to seize control of and revive the trans-Saharan trade in gold, the Songhai Empire could not win and was conquered, making this the last of the great West African empires.
Ghana had a long-standing conflict with the Berbers of Mauritania. In the latter part of the 11th century, these Berbers captured and destroyed Ghana's capital.
Sub-Saharan Kingdoms: Many kingdoms and empires emerged south of the Sahara desert, but I am only going to write about 5 of them.
Meroe: The ancient Egyptians were not the only people to settle along the Nile. South of Egypt’s borders, the Kush broke free of Egyptian rule around 1000 BCE. Then in, 590 BCE, the Kush moved their capital farther south to the city of Meroe. The Kush depended on farming and iron mining and thrived through trade with neighboring peoples as well as with Greeks, Roman, Arab, and distant Indiana merchants. The region around Meroe flourished for several hundred years. However, as nearby city-states also gained power, the influence of Meroe declined. In the fourth century CE, neighboring Aksum would overshadow and then destroy Meroe.
Funji: After the fall of Meroe, the area of what is now Sudan entered a kind of dark ages about which little is known. By the sixth century CE, Aksum and had declined, and three new kingdoms–Nobatia, Maqurrah, and Alwah–had arisen along the upper (southern) stretches of the Nile River, an area known as Nubia. Missionaries from the Byzantine Empire brought Christianity to the region, which continued to rely on farming and trade, especially with Egypt. Then, in the seventh century CE, Arabs expanded from Southwest Asia. They seized control of Nobatia, Maqurrah, and eventually in the 16th century, Alwah, in the process spreading Islam to the area. A century later, an African people known as the Funj emerged to defeat the Arabs and establish an African sultanate. The Funj had a difficult time keeping power during the next two centuries, and were never as stable as other kingdoms in the area. IN the 19th century CE, they were taken over by Egypt.
Axum: The African and Arab peoples who settled along the Red Sea built trade cities that became powerful city-states. By the first century CE, one of these, Axum, had become the wealthiest, most influential market city on what would become the Ethiopian coast. By the third century CE, Axum had extended its power over the region and grown into a kingdom that set about conquering neighboring lands. The source of Axum’s greatness was its position among African, Mediterranean, and Asian trade networks. The kingdom of Axum traded ivory, gold, glass, and agricultural and metal goods for textiles, spices, oils, and dyes from the Roman Empire, Egypt, Arabia, and India. In the fourth century CE, missionaries brought Christianity to Axum, and in 320 Ce, King Ezana became the first known Christian king of Africa. King Ezana and other monarchs spent some of their wealth on great public works such as the megalithic standing stones and obelisks used to mark their tombs. Axum and Adulis served as the two most important cities of the kingdom. Axum thrived into the sixth century CE, when Sassanid Persians overran Arabia and rolled back Axum’s influence there. Then, in the seventh century CE, the Arabs conquered Adulis, cutting off Axum from its prosperous Red Sea trade.
Ethiopia: As Aksum’s power waned, the African Agew people emerged to fill a growing vacuum of power. In time, they united much of the region and ruled Ethiopia s the Zaqwe Dynasty in the 12th and 13th centuries CE. The Zagwe emperor Lalibela became known for establishing the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia around 1185 CE. However, many peoples competed for dominance in the area, and in 1270 CE, the Shewa ruler Yekuno Amlak led a rebellion that established the Solomonic dynasty that would rule Ethiopia into the modern age. The Solomonic rulers claimed descent from the Biblical King Solomon and Queen Sheba. Ethiopia faced constant threats from its Muslim neighbors as well as from the Portuguese, but largely managed to resist both.
Oromo: While the Agew and Shewa peoples were establishing rule over Ethiopia proper, another African group known as the Oromo were pushing out the southern bush country in search of better lands. Primarily herders, the Oromo began raiding neighboring lands looking for more promising resources in the 13th century CE. Over time, they pushed farther north and west into the more fertile lands ruled by the Zagwe and then the Solomonids. Fierce warriors, they had won a great deal of territory by the 17th century CE. Like Ethiopia, Oromo came to depend on trade in coffee to generate wealth
Pre-Columbian/After Columbian Eras
I think the reason we split history into two different categories is because when the Europeans discovered America, they changed everything the Native Americans believed in and practiced. The Europeans introduced a new religion, new weapons, and new education.
first great civilization of Mesoamerica
located in southern Mezico from 1200-400 BCE
had a great deal of influence on neighboring and later cultures
are believed to have been a polythestic society
the Aztecs gave them the name of the Olmecs because they used latex from rubber trees to create rubber
most recognized artifacts are the massive, carved stone heads
located in what is now the state of Oaxaca in southern Mexico
were influenced by the Olmec
around 700 BCE, they began constructing a city located at Monte Alban
inhabitants in this city had a written calendar and language as well
settlement in Monte Alban flourished from 300 to 900 CE
some of the Zapotec people still live in modern times, unlike the Olmec people
thrived between 900-200 BCE
the culture dominated much of the coast of central Peru
stone ruins built into the mountain demonstrates the high level of organization this culture once had
The civilizations of the pre-Columbian Americas were as varied and diverse as the civilizations of Europe and Asia. But within each major region of the Americas, a few civilizations had the greatest impact and reach. Mesoamerica is a regioin that is defind by the cultural similarites of its indigenous populations. It extends from central Mexico through most of Central America, including Guatemala, El Salvador, honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. THe Aztecs and the Mayas are themost famous civilizations to thrive in this region.
Pacal the Great