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A presentation for the Clinton-Macomb Public Library on basic cyber-safety awareness.

Maria Kramer

on 23 January 2011

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Transcript of Cyber-Safety

Cyber Safety The worst-case scenario. How many of you have even had an online account hacked, or personal information used by others? How can I prevent this from happening?
How many of you have received e-mails that seem to be from your bank, asking for your information? How many of you have ever accidentally downloaded a computer virus? What can I do if something like this happens to me? Safe Internet Behavior 101 Password Safety E-mail Safety Your Money Online Banking Shopping Social Networking Mobile Safety Your Mobile Device
WiFi Safe Internet Behavior Part 2
Cell Phones Identity Theft -- Response Cyber-Safety for Parents Online Predators Inappropriate Content According to Consumer Reports' "State of the Net Survey 2010," "a projected 1.7 million online households [have] experienced online identity theft in the past year." (Tapellini, 2010). Approximately 16 million US households have had serious problems with viruses in the past two years. 1.8 million of these households had to replace an infected computer. (Consumer Reports, 2010) Approximately 5.4 million people gave personal information to e-mail scammers. One million households lost money due to these scams. (Consumer Reports, 2010) (Tapellini, 2010) According to Wired Magazine, the top 20 myspace passwords of 2006 were: password1, abc123, myspace1, password, blink182, qwerty1, f***you (without the stars), 123abc, baseball1, football1, 123456, soccer, monkey1, liverpool1, princess1, jordan23, slipknot1, superman1, iloveyou1 and monkey. (Schneier, 2006) A 'safe' password is a random string of numbers, letters and symbols that is at least 10 characters long. "I like bread and butter."
421Lb@B#22 But wait, I'll never remember that!
1. Write down passwords and keep them somewhere safe: Inside old books
Secret drawers
A hatbox in the back of the closet
Basically, anywhere a thief is unlikely to look
2. Use password management software: KeePass
Password Safe
Macs -- keychain
DO NOT use a password manager unless it is encrypted
and requires its own password to open! There's more to password safety than passwords. User Name
Secret Questions The human factor
Passwords are supposed to be secret!
No Auto Fill
Sign off
Clear browser history
Use more than one password
According to a study in 2007: "the average web user was found to maintain 25 separate password accounts, with just 6.5 passwords.”(Bonneau & Preibusch, 2010) Don't assume a site is "safe" because it asks you to create a password. It still may share your information with others. Phishing
First, a quiz (courtesy of sonicwall.com) Protect Yourself Don't send any sensitive information via e-mail.
Be wary of unexpected e-mails or phone calls.
Check the URL.
Update your browser and enable anti-phishing software.
When in doubt, verify the e-mail independently! If you think you have been phished: Contact any financial institution that may have been compromised.
Change the passwords to your online accounts.
File a complaint at ftc.gov.
Forward an e-mail you believe to be a phishing attempt to spam@uce.gov. How visible is your e-mail address? If you receive spam: Do not open it.
Do not reply to it.
Do not click on any links inside the message. Preventing spam Exercise caution when posting or giving out your e-mail address.
Get a "throwaway" e-mail. Don't be afraid to cut and run! An ounce of prevention: Don't open e-mail attachments from people you don't know!
Don't click on links in an e-mail from an unknown source! Security Software Safe Downloading ONLY download from trustworthy websites! Good sites to download software:
tucows.com Peer to Peer (P2P) Filesharing “On February 26, 2009, the "Today" show broadcast a segment on inadvertent P2P file sharing, reporting that Social Security numbers, more than 150,000 tax returns, 25,800 student loan applications, and nearly 626,000 credit reports were easily accessible on a P2P network.” (Sandoval, 2009) Dartmouth researchers “discovered thousands of documents containing sensitive patient information on popular peer-to-peer (P2P) networks” just this year. (Vijayan, 2010) Make sure your security software is active and up to date.
Back up any information you don't want to lose.
Install carefully -- check defaults!

Close the connection, not just the window.
If your computer has multiple users, limit their access.
Talk to your kids!
Anti-spyware Look for software that: Can detect both known and unknown viruses and spyware in real time.
Has a low false positive rate.
Has been reviewed in established publications and/or tested by independent labs. Do not take the word of the product’s website or ads! consumerreports.org
pcmag.com and pcworld.com
macworld.com and maclife.com
There's more to security than software. Practice safe Internet behavior.
Consider changing your OS/browser.
Don't install software that you don't use.
Update, update, update!
Before you share: While sharing: Good sources for software reviews: Special Circumstances Do: Don't: Practice password safety. Remember that password safety section? Check your privacy settings. http://www.wiredsafety.org/fbprivacy/index.htm Supervise your children. Accept friend requests from strangers. What do these photos have in common? Don't tag your child in photos, or allow others to do so.
Don't upload photos of others without their permission.
Don't over-expose (or allow your teen to do so).
Don't post photos of yourself doing something embarrassing! Be polite! Post something that you would not say in front of a prospective employer. A survey in 2008 found that over 1 in 5 employers use social networking sites to screen applicants. One third of those employers said the information they found caused them to reject a potential employee. (Havenstein, 2008) The Robin Sage Experiment:
Provide Security created a fake profile, using the name "Robin Sage."
With this profile, they friended more than 300 professionals in sensitive fields such as the DoD and NSA.
Robin's new friends revealed classified information -- including troop movements -- to a total stranger. Fabrizio, 2010 If someone else posts a photo of you that you don't like, report them to your social media provider. Tynan, 2008 Before you buy: Vet the site. Check for seals of approval.
Check the site's rating on bbb.org.
Make sure it's the site you think it is. Take a look at the Privacy Policy.
http: vs https: Use a credit card, not a debit card. Make sure the site protects your information. http://www2.fdic.gov/idasp/main_bankfind.asp Check the domain: .org, .com, .net
Is the URL misspelled? Exercise caution when you give out your mobile phone number.
Don't reply to texts from strangers.
If you receive spam texts, block the sender. Practice the rules of photo etiquette.
Be very careful when sending others photos of yourself -- talk to your teen about this! Learn text lingo:
http://www.lingo2word.com/search_dictionary.php Treat your device like a big pile of cash. Lock your device when not in use. If possible, do not store sensitive info on a mobile device. Whole Disk Encryption:
If a mobile device containing sensitive information is stolen: http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/microsites/idtheft/ Peter Kaminsky d70focus Dan Strange
Before you go online: Activate your firewall.
Deactivate file-sharing.
Deactivate "ad hoc" or "peer to peer" mode on your wireless card. (Control Panel --> Network Connections)
Make sure your laptop isn't configured to attempt to connect with any wireless network in range.
Does the network require a password to access? Don't connect to a wireless network you don't know! Try not to perform sensitive operations over a public wireless network. If you go offline, remove your wireless card. If you must, use a VPN:
http://lifehacker.com/5487500/five-best-vpn-tools http://www.slideshare.net/socialologist/social-media-smarts-for-teens
http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/microsites/idtheft/ 1. Review your credit reports, and place a fraud alert. www.annualcreditreport.com
Experian 2. Close any accounts you believe have been tampered with or opened fraudulently. 3. File a complaint with the Federal Trade Commission. (ftc.gov) 4. File a police report. http://www.justice.gov/criminal/fraud/websites/idtheft.html
www.idtheftcenter.org -- 1 -888-400-5530
Michigan ID Theft Hotline -- (877) 644-3843
Document everything! Cyberbullying The good news: Online predation is actually quite rare. In 2006, online solicitation accounted for only 1% of all arrests for sexual abuse of a minor. (Willard, 2010) Most young people know how to respond to inappropriate situations online. “A recent study of how youth deal with strangers in a social network site found that 92% of youth at the receiving end of sexual solicitations in a social site either had an appropriate reaction or ignored the solicitation.” (Willard, 2010) Warning Signs: Changes in Behavior Withdrawl from family and friends.
Spending much more time online.
Hiding online activities.
Pornography. Mystery Friends Phone calls, letters or packages from strangers.
Social network "friends" who are much older than the child. Suggestions: Be a part of your child's cyber-life. Cell phones
Social networks
Browser history
Computer files Consider installing parental monitoring software. If your child has received sexually explicit messages or images, or sexual solicitations from someone who knows she is under 18, contact your local police department, the FBI and the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. Preserve all evidence on your computer. According to YISS, a large study of American Internet behavior last conducted in 2000, 25% of youth had unintentional exposure to pornography. 24% of those exposed reported that the exposure was “distressing” (Mitchell et al., 2004). Other studies show that 47% or even 60-84% of youth have been exposed. (Fleming et al., 2006) Youth most likely to be exposed are teens who use the Internet more frequently than others, use e-mail and chat rooms frequently, use the Internet in households other than their own, talk with strangers online, and engage in high online risk behavior. (Mitchell et al., 2004) Parental Control Software An Ounce of Prevention Does it Work? Some studies show that exposure to inappropriate content was significantly lower in households with protective software in place. Other studies have not confirmed that protective software has any effect on exposure rates. (Fleming et al., 2006). In one study 25-32% of children in households using parental control software were still exposed to inappropriate content (Ybarra et al., 2009.) Interestingly, a study in 2003 showed no correlation between software and exposure rates when parents reported using protective software, but a noticeable correlation when children knew the software was installed (Fleming et al., 2006). What to look for: Customization
Time Limits
Social Network Filtering
Updates Review Sources: http://www.consumersearch.com/parental-control-software
Free -- K9 and OpenDNS Arvind Balaraman SocialShield
Reputation Defender's "My Child" Many researchers agree that the most effective approach to managing youth Internet behavior is a combination of software and parental involvement (OSTWG, 2010) (Greenfield, 2004). Talk to your child about Internet safety. If parents don't talk to their kids about Internet safety, the children demonstrate poorer Internet safety behaviors – especially in younger children (Fleming et al., 2006). Keep computers in public places. Set time limits. If you use filter software, tell your child about it. Where are they going?
What are they doing?
Who are they with? Arvind Balaraman Online harrassment including: insults, impersonation, exclusion, spreading rumors or sharing personal information without permission, posting embarrassing pictures, threats, and/or hacking profiles and accounts in order to damage/alter them (Lenhart, 2009). Studies report that anywhere between 9% and 32% of teens have experienced cyberbullying (Lenhart, 2009). Among LGBT youth, rates of cyberbullying can rise to 54% (OSTWG, 2010). Those most at risk of cyberbullying include: 14-17 year-olds, girls, social network members, and those who use the Internet heavily (Lenhart, 2009). If your child is being bullied: If your child is the bully: Prevention Do not immediately cut off all Internet access. Be there for your child. Involve your child in the process. Investigate the situation. Preserve all evidence -- e-mails, screenshots, chat records, etc. Block or unfriend the agressors. Know your resources. Contact the police if your child has received threats, or if the incident involves capturing, sending or posting sexually-explicit pictures of minors Consider contacting the parents of the bully. Anywhere from 12% to 25% of teens and tweens have engaged in cyber-bullying (Parker-Pope, 2010) (Ybarra & Mitchell, 2004). Limit Internet access, and set up clear behavioral expectations. Consider using parental control software to enforce these rules. Make sure the issue is "real" to your child. Megan Meier Phoebe Prince Consider apologizing to the other parents. Don't immediately have your child apologize,
as the other child may interpret an apology as a veiled threat. Make sure your child knows that the rules of behavior are the same online as the are offline -- and bullying isn't ok in either setting. Talk to your child about safe Internet behavior. Insecure passwords, friending strangers, and over-exposure of personal information online are openings for cyber-bullying. Be a part of your child's online life. Resources: The Cyberbullying Research Center: www.cyberbullying.us
site.ebrary.com/lib/cyberbullying/home.action Steven Fernandez twenty_questions
laffy4k (Consumer Reports, 2010) Bibliography Bonneau, J. and Preibusch, S. “The Password Thicket: Technical and market failures in human authentication on the web.” Ninth Workshop on the Economics of Information Security, June 7-8, 2010.
Consumer Reports. “7 Things to Stop Doing Now on Facebook.” ConsumerReports.org, June 2010.
- - . “State of the Net 2010.” ConsumerReports.org, June 2010.
Fabrizio, E. “The Dangers of Friending Strangers: The Robin Sage Experiment.” science.dodlive.mil, July 21, 2010.
Fleming, M. et al. “Safety in Cyberspace: Adolescents' Safety and Exposure Online.” Youth and Society 38:2, Dec. 2006.
Greenfield, P. “Inadvertent exposure to pornography on the Internet: Implications of peer-to-peer file-sharing networks for child development and families.” Applied Developmental Psychology 25, 2004.
Havenstein, H. “One in Five Employers Use Social Networks in Hiring Process.” Computerworld.com, Sept. 12, 2008.
Lenhart, A. “Cyberbullying: What the Research is Telling Us.” Pew Internet & American Life Project, May 13, 2009.
Lewin, T. "If Your Kids Are Awake, They're Probably Online." New York Times, Jan. 20, 2010.
Mitchell, K., Finkelhor, D. and Wolak, J. “Victimization of Youths on the Internet.” Journal of Agression, Maltreatment and Trauma 8:1, 2004.
Online Safety and Technology Working Group. “Youth Safety on a Living Internet.” June 4, 2010.
Parker-Pope, T. “When Your Child Is the Cyberbully.” New York Times, June 29, 2010.
Sandoval, G. “Congress to Probe P2P Sites Over 'Inadvertent Sharing'.” CNet News, April 21, 2009.
Schneier, B. “Real World Passwords.” Schneier on Security, Dec. 14, 2006.
Tapellini, D. “Consumer Reports Survey: Social network users post risky information.” ConsumerReports.org, May 4, 2010.
Tynan, D. “Say Cheese: 12 Photos That Never Should Have Been Posted Online.” PCWorld, Sept. 15, 2008.
Vijayan, J. “P2P Networks a Treasure Trove of Leaked Healthcare Data, Study Finds.” Computerworld.com, May 17, 2010.
Willard, N. “Techno-Panic & 21st Century Education.” Center for Safe and Responsible Internet Use, 2010.
Ybarra, M. and Mitchell, K. “Online aggressor/targets, aggressors, and targets” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2004.
Ybarra, M. et al. “Associations between blocking, monitoring, and filtering software on the home computer and youth-reported unwanted exposure to sexual material online.” Child Abuse & Neglect 33, 2009. A recent study by the Kaiser Family Foundation found that young people of the ages 8-18 spend 7 1/2 hours a day on electronic devices. (Lewin, 2010)
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